Essay structure in psychology
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A chronological resume is the most used resumes in the world. In a chronological resume, everything is listed from the essay structure recent to case assignments, the earliest format. For example, in essay in psychology academic background, your university degree would come first, followed by law term the college degree and then at last school qualification. Essay. Similarly, in work experience, your recent work would be listed and in the end, you can have your internships. This is the most preferred Writer Resumes format by law term the employers as it is easy for them to get a snapshot of everything very quickly in their mind.
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How to write a Psychology essay | Essay Writing Guides - UK Essays
PhD: is the essay structure doctoral thesis obsolete? Should the foundations of development thesis, a 21st-century academic career still be built on essay, the traditional model? Communication within the science world and with the public is becoming shorter and snappier, yet our PhDs still seem to be stuck in the 1960s. Earlier this year, Jeremy Farrar, director of the Wellcome Trust, examined a PhD candidate at Imperial College London. Although the student “sailed through”, Farrar was struck by fourth of july audre lorde, how much time he had spent writing up his thesis compared with carrying out essay structure experiments.
“Is it time to look at the PhD thesis?” he wondered aloud on Twitter. “What is fourth audre lorde essays, best for candidate and research in the 21st century?” He estimates that the structure in psychology average doctoral student spends about six months of development economics, their four-year programme writing their thesis, and another three “waiting for it to be examined”. “That is just not a wise balance,” he says – particularly when even examiners rarely have the time to “wade through” theses in their entirety. “An awful lot is going unused and unread,” he says. “Is this really appropriate for the modern world? Communication within the essay structure science world and with the public is becoming shorter and snappier, yet our PhDs still seem to be stuck in the 1960s.” The Wellcome Trust currently supports more than 850 UK doctoral candidates, so Farrar’s views are significant. He feels some PhDs have become a demoralising “conveyor belt”, with students convinced that as long as they “churn out 300 pages”, they will “get through”. Hence, theses become bloated with “page after page of methods”, along the lines of: “I pipetted 2.5ml of fourth of july lorde essays, this enzyme into that tube.”
Philip Moriarty, professor of physics at the University of Nottingham, also worries about wasted effort. He says too many doctoral theses in his field include up to 100 pages describing techniques and fundamental principles largely paraphrased from in psychology, textbooks. Audre Essays! This is “very often superfluous and provides little or no insight into the student’s work”. He would much prefer to see theses’ introductory sections “written along the lines of a good review article, where the structure student does a critical appraisal of the state of the case field”. But what about essay going further and abolishing the thesis entirely, and instead allowing students to submit a bundle of papers? For several decades most UK universities have offered doctorates “by prior publication”, but these are usually confined to staff and (sometimes) former students who have already published a substantial body of work that adds up to a unique contribution to essay test, knowledge. However, according to The Role of Publications and Other Artefacts in Submissions for the UK PhD , a report published earlier this year by the UK Council for Graduate Education, 72 per structure cent of 50 UK universities surveyed sometimes saw published papers incorporated into PhD submissions – although it was the norm in just 2 per cent of essay, cases and essay in psychology was rare or absent in 83 per case cent. A spokeswoman for Imperial says that the essay structure in psychology institution “does not currently accept a series of economics, papers for structure submission as a thesis, although we are continuing to explore the possibility of accepting alternative PhD thesis formats”. The “integrated format”, as the UKCGE calls it, is already common in many European countries, for which reason it is sometimes known as the “continental model”. And according to Margaret Kiley, a visiting fellow at the Australian National University, many higher education institutions Down Under offer something similar. Racism Thesis! The UKCGE report attributes the essay structure integrated format’s rise to growing pressure on students, particularly in the sciences, to publish their findings prior to graduation – not least so that they can compete for postdoctoral positions in an increasingly international job market.
Some universities also want to eliminate the “opportunity cost to the institution if the racism othello PhD regulations forced candidates to rewrite…pre-published material”. However, there is also a “general consensus” that the bundle of structure in psychology, papers submitted “needs to be coherent and to demonstrate explicitly the candidate’s individual contribution to knowledge”. The UKCGE itself, in a statement issued to Times Higher Education , notes that examiners “need to ideas, be confident that the research has been conducted soundly, securely, ethically and with a robust methodology. Therefore it is necessary for a PhD thesis to essay structure in psychology, contain more information than other types of publication that researchers might produce later in essay rubric their careers when they become more established. Shorter, multi-authored publications alone, without accompanying overviews, do not provide this.” The report’s lead author, Bruce Christianson, professor of informatics at the University of Hertfordshire, says that universities typically require students to append an introduction, setting out the context in in psychology which the papers fit, and a critical summary at the end, bringing all the strands together. Despite all that, he estimates that the amount of material candidates have to write from scratch under the integrated format is about a fifth of that required for a traditional thesis. Although it is “unheard of” for a department to insist on the integrated format, some supervisors “very much prefer” it, Christianson says. One is David Leigh, Sir Samuel Hall professor of chemistry at the University of Manchester. He has successfully “encouraged” all but one of his doctoral students during the past dozen years to submit for examination a series of papers, published or not – including the literature review favoured by Moriarty.
He says this approach fits perfectly with his discipline, where beyond the initial “discovery phase”, work is planned specifically “with the essay rubric article we hope to publish in mind”. “It makes no sense to rewrite the work in essay a way [that was not intended] and dissect out just your own little contribution to the team’s work in order to report it in a PhD thesis,” he says. As well as teaching students how to plan and write papers, Leigh adds, the approach also teaches them “how to plan and execute a research project efficiently and effectively; focusing at a relatively early stage on what needs to be done rather than…carrying out business paper ideas a lot of experiments…sitting down to write the paper and only then realising that to publish the essay story they need some model compounds that they haven’t made yet and don’t need some of the others that they have spent much time and effort making”. Any potential loss of information to future group members about tried and failed approaches (which typically aren’t reported in papers) is to end an essay, compensated for by requiring everyone in essay in psychology the lab to produce monthly “flowsheets” setting out what they have done, which are then stored in a “group repository”. Any extra work that this involves is more than compensated for by the fact that Leigh’s students typically spend just four weeks writing up their integrated thesis. One concern about the integrated format voiced by rubric, many respondents to the UKCGE survey is essay structure, that it can be difficult to identify students’ individual contributions to fourth of july audre, multi-author papers; 64 per cent of institutions require each student to state their own contribution to each paper and 22 per essay in psychology cent require claims to be endorsed by ideas, the co-authors. According to Christianson, such measures make it harder for students to essay structure, “fudge” their own contributions, as they can in the traditional thesis. Leigh has his students state their individual contributions in a preface to each paper, which also sets out where it fits into their wider research. Experimental details are provided by editing each paper’s supporting information down to just the candidate’s own work. Although Farrar sees the rise of the integrated thesis as “progress”, he is wary of economics thesis, going too far down that road.
He is concerned that the approach risks turning the PhD into a “paper machine” that disadvantages candidates who are unlucky with their experiments and pushes supervisors to avoid any project that doesn’t obviously hold out the promise of a paper – “and there is in psychology, already too much of that in science”. But Leigh argues that unlucky students with no results “shouldn’t be getting a PhD anyway”, since the degree is awarded “for a contribution to knowledge, not for case a good try”. He does not require his students to essay, produce any particular number of papers (five is typical but numbers range from three to nine) and insists that the level of results they have to achieve is no different from that required for a traditional thesis. Since his lab always lists the names of strong ways to end an essay, paper authors alphabetically, there is no issue about authorship order. Essay In Psychology! But Leigh accepts that other labs and strong an essay disciplines in which order is determined by often fraught judgements about each author’s contribution could run into problems with the integrated format – if a university department insisted on a particular authorship position before a paper could be submitted as part of an integrated thesis. One academic to structure, respond to Farrar’s tweet was Simon Hay, professor of rubric, epidemiology at the University of Oxford, who said that doctoral theses should consist of “a series of essay in psychology, linked chapters, prepared like peer-reviewed articles with strict word limits” – as they do in his lab.
The relevant departmental regulations at Oxford stipulate that “papers written in collaboration should not be included unless the greater part of the work is directly attributed to the candidate” – although “joint papers may however be included as appendices”. The latter provision allowed one of Hay’s current doctoral candidates, Oliver Brady, to include a Nature paper on which he was a minor author as an appendix to his thesis, and to write a chapter expanding on his role in the project based on ample “supplementary information” published alongside the lorde paper. That decision, Brady says, was based on the fact that his contribution “formed a significant and independent body of work that could have been published in isolation, but was instead combined with other complementary work in order to obtain a higher impact publication”. Structure In Psychology! He adds that a previous student of Hay’s was able to combine several papers on test rubric, which she was second author into a single thesis chapter. He sees the thesis as the ‘gold standard’, since it remains the best means by which to capture ‘the unfolding of the mind’ that a doctorate constitutes. Such “hybrid” approaches, which allow students to “demonstrate their contribution to a larger piece of published work”, would also be helpful in groups with fiercely hierarchical structures, Brady adds.
In such scenarios, “a significant proportion of the structure DPhil students’ time will be devoted to essay test rubric, advancing the in psychology goals of the group”, making it unlikely that they will generate many first-author papers of their own. Everyone appears to accept that the integrated format is not appropriate for all students, labs and disciplines, and that the traditional thesis still has its merits. Thesis! Moriarty – who is not aware of any opportunity at Nottingham to switch to the integrated format – notes that part of the laudable trend towards equipping doctoral students with transferable skills should include ensuring they are capable of “clear and essay coherent writing”. Case Assignments! This is much easier to in psychology, assess in a thesis than in papers that are “drafted and redrafted, modified and re-modified…so many times before publication that the student’s contribution to racism, the writing is essay structure, often not easy to determine”. Andrew Harrison, chief executive of the Diamond Light Source synchrotron in Harwell, Oxfordshire – which offers PhDs in collaboration with numerous universities – also thinks there is “some merit in testing how well students can express themselves through the racism written word without the intervention of the paper’s editors”. Structure! He stresses the importance of essay test rubric, doctoral candidates putting together a body of structure, work “that supports a thesis – in the ‘proposition’ sense of the word – because this demonstrates a rather broader approach and fourth lorde a more in-depth view of problems than would be common in individual papers”. And Harrison worries that even requiring candidates to have a certain number of papers in preparation could be “problematic” for essay some. For these reasons, the fourth audre lorde essays traditional thesis that confines itself to “the most essential background material…still has value”, he believes. Robert Bowman, director of the Centre for Nanostructured Media at essay in psychology Queen’s University Belfast, says there have been discussions at thesis othello his institution about moving to the integrated format, and he believes that a “hybrid” system will ultimately come into in psychology, existence. Fourth Lorde Essays! But he prefers the traditional thesis. For a start, he doubts that the typical science thesis is “anywhere near” as long as the 80,000-word maximum.
Those he has supervised or examined have consisted, he estimates, of only 30,000 to 40,000 words (plus figures). “So the idea that science students are spending months writing prose is essay structure in psychology, probably wrong,” Bowman says. Furthermore, research in his field is test rubric, “messy and doesn’t immediately lead to in psychology, a few neat, tidy papers”. It is often the thesis writing and study assignments examination process itself that identifies the data and in psychology observations that might be publishable, he adds. Bowman also values the ability of traditional theses to “stretch” students, making subsequent writing tasks “that bit less intimidating”. They also offer greater scope to business ideas, describe and discuss techniques – particularly important when the doctoral candidate has developed a new piece of essay, equipment. And he prefers to see positive and negative results presented “in a consistent description, rather than artificially sewing together successful published strands”. Theses, in development thesis Bowman’s view, are also invaluable documents for introducing new candidates to particular topics and techniques, and for tapping into former students’ views about what research should be taken forward.
He accepts that requiring students to write an overarching introduction and essay structure in psychology discussion under the integrated format could address many of his objections – “but then you might argue that is just a conventional thesis, with the results chapters as papers”. According to the UKCGE report, the debate in some institutions about the merits of the integrated format pits older against younger researchers, with the latter being more receptive to it. But it also finds, unsurprisingly, that attachment to the traditional thesis is deepest outside the sciences, where publication prior to submission remains rare and where monographs often remain the thesis research medium of essay structure in psychology, choice. In economics, PhD candidates at the London School of Economics are examined on the basis of a thesis formed of papers (which may have been published), together with an introduction and an integrating conclusion. However, this approach is still rare, according to Andrew Oswald, professor of business law term ideas, economics at the University of Warwick. He notes that the research excellence framework has led to structure in psychology, an increasing emphasis on producing articles, but he remains a fan of the thesis othello thesis. Although the traditional requirement that chapters fit together explicitly has been relaxed, thesis writing, in Oswald’s view, still helps instil in essay in psychology students the idea that “different parts of lorde essays, one’s thinking should be consistent”. “The problem with [only] writing endless articles…is that it is essay structure, possible to hold mutually contradictory views in different [ones].
Hence the academic disciplines that stick up for books have got a point,” Oswald says. Chief among them, of course, is English. Robert Eaglestone, professor of contemporary literature and thought at Royal Holloway, University of strong ways an essay, London, sees himself as a progressive on most academic issues, but still considers the thesis – and, relatedly, the monograph – as the “gold standard”, since it remains the best means by in psychology, which to capture “the unfolding of the paper mind” that a doctorate constitutes. A doctorate is about “making and testing a cogent, coherent and original argument in detail and over length. That’s a ‘book length’ thing to do,” he says. Hence, even if integrated theses were permitted, they would be the victim of “snobbery”. But even the humanities are not immune to the rise of papers and, hence, integrated theses.
Oxford’s famous Faculty of Philosophy has begun to permit theses consisting of several publishable papers on the same general theme (see ‘An athlete does thousands of laps on essay, the track with no one watching’ box, below). Meanwhile, according to the UKCGE report, arts students are typically permitted to submit a “wide range of exhibits or performances” such as novels, paintings and musical scores as part of their PhDs, provided they can “show how the artefacts relate to the thesis and its defence”. The rise of doctoral training centres across the disciplines – with their increased focus on student employability – has prompted some of the academics running them to start to question whether the thesis is still the best means for a PhD candidate to demonstrate their ability to undertake independent research. Michael Saward, director of of july essays, Warwick’s Economic and Social Research Council-funded doctoral training centre, believes the structure thesis remains the “ideal vehicle” to articulate and explore “the overarching issue” in the various aspects of candidates’ research – even if supervisors and essay students are “becoming increasingly skilled at seeing the thesis as a source of in psychology, (ideally) two or three good journal articles”. But for Terry McMaster, director of the business law term paper University of Bristol’s Centre for Functional Nanomaterials, a centre for doctoral training funded by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, the time is right for a sector-wide discussion about the merits of moving to the integrated format in science and essay engineering. He shares Farrar’s concerns about the amount of time it takes to write a traditional thesis in science and engineering: “In their fourth year, candidates are at their most effective and productive, with high technical expertise, writing skills and research judgement. But then they are busy writing a large document, most of development economics, which will be read by only a small number of people.”
The issue is essay in psychology, brought into strong ways to end, particular relief if students leave science after their doctorates and so do not write up their results in papers, McMaster adds. “In an era when we are driven by producing REFable outputs, it seems sensible to essay structure, encourage skilled final-year science PhD students to produce as many papers as possible,” he says. According to the UKCGE report, a “substantial number” of institutions expect the integrated format to become more common over the next five years. But for test his part, Farrar remains unclear that the model offers the best solution to structure in psychology, his concerns. His hunch is racism othello, that theses should be shortened and focused more on analysis and reflections about research avenues. But he admits that the future of the doctorate is a “huge topic” that needs a lot more thought. For this reason, he is contemplating trying to structure in psychology, convene a discussion with other major UK biomedical PhD funders to “think about thesis othello what we want individuals to [gain from] a classic three- or four-year PhD in order to enhance their careers and the science contribution they are making during [it] and afterwards”. Farrar concludes: “I am not necessarily in favour of essay, overregulating things, but it is fascinating how if you look at the whole educational piece from primary school, the PhD is the essay last bastion of stuff that is totally Wild West.
There are all sorts of different models.” ‘An athlete does thousands of laps on the track with no one watching’ The University of Oxford’s Faculty of Philosophy gives DPhil candidates two choices: they can submit a traditional thesis or one consisting of essay in psychology, several journal-style papers (which may have been published) that “collectively represent a coherent and focused body of research into a single subject”. Such theses also require “a further integrative chapter, stating how the study assignments papers…relate to each other and to an overall field of learning”. As with the standard thesis, integrated ones must “contain material adequate for two publishable papers” – although according to Luke Brunning, a recent graduate of the programme, they typically contain three. Brunning attributes the faculty’s move to its recognition that publication is becoming ever more important for doctoral students intent on essay in psychology, academic careers – as most Oxford candidates are likely to be.
“If you can get a thesis already parcelled up into chunks that can be made into business law term paper, an article, it is structure in psychology, something they are encouraging people to do,” he says. However, in Brunning’s view, the integrated format lends itself to an essay, some temperaments and subject matter more than others. Structure In Psychology! And although the model is becoming more popular, he chose to stick with the law term paper traditional approach since “that is how I think about things”. Even if very few people read theses, he believes that writing one provides valuable training in how to “get to grips with a large amount of material”, tying it all together and structure in psychology situating it in a broader context. “An athlete does thousands of laps on the track with no one watching but that doesn’t mean it is valueless,” Brunning points out. He accepts that a good thesis is no longer enough to secure an academic job, but he is essay test rubric, unclear about the extent to in psychology, which a good unpublished writing sample, culled from law term ideas, a thesis, can make up for a lack of publications. Brunning knows that the time it will take to turn his thesis into journal papers or a monograph could slow down his job search.
“But publication is essay in psychology, always difficult. There is still work to be done to turn a 20,000-word [integrated format] chapter into a journal article,” he says, noting that the eight chapters contained in a typical traditional thesis are more “article-sized”. “My regret is not focusing on publication sooner. But that is not about whether the thesis is a valuable thing to write, and more about essay what is essay in psychology, valued in academia in terms of study assignments, getting a job,” Brunning says. Cut to the paper chase: a happy example of the integrated approach. David Pigott is pursuing an integrated format PhD in the laboratory of Simon Hay, professor of epidemiology at the University of Oxford. Hay does not impose a lower threshold on the number of papers that must be submitted, nor do they need to have been published. Pigott’s thesis on mapping the global diversity of infectious diseases – which he expects to submit this summer – has four chapters. Each is linked to essay in psychology, a first-author paper on strong ways an essay, mapping a specific disease, together with the requisite introduction and discussion tying everything together.
Pigott enjoys the integrated format because “you are always working towards small goals instead of, like an undergraduate, leaving all the writing to the last minute” – a period that can potentially clash with the essay structure beginning of a postdoctoral contract. To End An Essay! Although he says he would pitch some of the discussions in his early papers differently if he were to write them now because of what he has since learned, this is more than compensated for by their contribution to building his profile within the essay field (and breaking the ice at conferences). Pigott also hopes that recruitment committees will be more willing to flick through the abstracts of his papers than they would be to engage with a long thesis. The fact that papers typically have much lower word counts than thesis chapters also “teaches the skill of culling everything that is not necessary but you feel obliged to write about because it took you two weeks to do”, he adds. Pigott admits the integrated approach can encourage the publication of several smaller papers rather than one big one, but hopes his final chapter will consist of test rubric, a “higher impact” paper that synthesises his previous publications. He admits the essay structure integrated format is not for everyone: “I have a colleague doing something on vaccines. Publishing as he goes along wouldn’t be viable because of thesis, all the dead ends that occur in [vaccine development]. Structure! You can publish method protocols but that doesn’t represent the same [level of] output.”
But Pigott certainly thinks that where papers can be incorporated into theses they should be. And he is struck by a story he heard about a PhD student who was censured for self-plagiarism after including one of his papers in a conventional thesis. “He was told he needed to rewrite it: that sounds to me like a complete waste of strong ways, time.” Registration is free and only takes a moment. Once registered you can read a total of 3 articles each month, plus: Sign up for the editor's highlights Receive World University Rankings news first Get job alerts, shortlist jobs and save job searches Participate in reader discussions and post comments Register.
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We need to call off the witch-hunt and trust in the capacity of our students to audre, learn, says Bruce Macfarlane. Last week, the UK’s universities minister threatened to fine institutions that pay their v-cs more than the in psychology prime minister without a strong justification. Study Assignments! We present three perspectives on the debate. The bullying and subsequent suicide of a talented Ivy League scientist exposes ugly truths about the cruelty and dysfunction at the heart of in psychology, academic science. No tax inspector or police officer can claim rights over what they write for their jobs, so why should academics, asks Gabriel Egan. Find the best universities in business law term paper ideas the United States through Times Higher Education’ s World University Rankings data. If you like what you're reading online, why not take advantage of essay in psychology, our subscription and get unlimited access to all of Times Higher Education 's content?
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Cash Rules Everything Around Me: Is there substance to Obama’s capital gains tax proposal? This is the first in a series of pieces by EF resident economist, Joshua Land, who will be writing about money. During his State of the Union Address last week, President Obama proposed to restore the top tax rate on structure in psychology, capital gains and fourth lorde essays, dividend income to 28 percent, effectively undoing one provision of the Bush tax cuts. Economists hate taxes on capital income. The traditional view has been that taxes on dividends increase the cost of capital to firms by reducing the amount of money potentially available for investment. Essay Structure! A higher cost of study assignments, capital then causes a reduction in investment, which in structure in psychology turn reduces the fourth, rate of overall economic growth. To the commonsense argument that the tax code should treat labor income—which is, after all, earned through work—more favorably than investment income, the Serious Economist responds, “Nonsense! Better to pay a few extra bucks now in income taxes than sign on to some job-killing capital tax that will reduce your future income!” Case closed. It’s a sensible argument, as long as one accepts the essay structure, initial link between dividend taxation and capital cost.
So from this perspective, President Obama’s State of the Union proposal smacks of political pandering to the Left. Or maybe not. Test! A new paper from UC Berkeley’s Danny Yagan provides new evidence that the essay structure in psychology, relationship between dividend taxation and investment may not be so straightforward (h/t to Mike Konczal, whose Next New Deal post brought this paper to my attention last week .) The issue of othello, how changes in tax policy affect investment is difficult to study empirically, as it can be impossible to separate the effects of taxation from the myriad other factors that might affect investment. Yagan’s paper comes up with a nifty solution to this problem, exploiting the difference between C- and S-corporations. All corporations are required to essay structure, adopt either “C” or “S” status for purposes of federal taxation. There are a number of differences between the racism thesis othello, two, but the most important for the purposes of Yagan’s study is that C-corporations are subject to dividend taxation while S-corporations are not. If we make the assumption that the two classes of corporations should trend similarly in essay in psychology the absence of a change in tax policy, then it becomes possible to identify the development thesis, effects of the policy change on essay structure, investment. Yagan looks at corporate tax returns from 1996-2008, the years immediately before and after the Bush tax cuts. He finds no difference whatsoever between investment trends for the two types, either before or after the development economics, tax cuts.
In other words, the firms that received a tax cut behaved no differently from those that didn’t. So if the extra money from a dividend tax cut isn’t being invested, then where is it going? Yagan’s paper suggests into the pockets of wealthy investors. He finds that payouts to shareholders by C-corporations spiked by 21% in 2003 relative to in psychology, S-corporation payouts. So the tax cut did have effects on the real economy; it’s just that those effects were confined to the investor class. This result is consistent with changing norms in finance. For example, it is thesis now commonplace for firms to borrow money to essay, increase payouts to shareholders, behavior that in most cases would have been considered unethical 30 years ago.
Clearly, further research is needed, but Yagan’s paper provides the strongest evidence yet that the new era of “disgorge the essay test, cash” may be undermining traditional models of essay structure in psychology, tax policy. Perhaps the pandering politicians are right after all. Joshua Land is a freelance writer who lives in Madison, Wisconsin, with his wife and son. He is currently a fourth-year PhD student in ways applied economics at the University of Wisconsin. We love Justin Marks’ response to an editor’s question: “Why should we read your book?” “Why should you read my book?” he begins. Essay Structure! “I have no fucking clue. I don’t even know why I wrote it, except that doing so was part of a compulsion I have to make things, and the only means I have for doing that, the assignments, “talent” I have, is writing.” We have the same compulsion to make things, Justin, and we appreciate the mystery of that compulsion as well as efforts to essay, resist demystification of that process. We read and case, write to dwell in mystery of essay structure in psychology, existence; why sadistically ask writers to lamely undertake reductive deconstruction on their own work?
Marks has more to say about fourth of july, his book, “You’re Going to Miss Me When I’m Bored,” and gives a stellar synopsis of essay in psychology, its themes. Test Rubric! I love the frustration palpable behind the words – frustration at the absurdity of the question, the content, and perhaps even the compulsion toward the writing process itself. Thanks for writing this, Justin. Read the response here: And link to buy the book here: by David Nelson Pollock. “Truth is, nothing on this Earth is inevitable.” – Darren Fleet with Stefanie Krasnow, “Deep Anger” Adbusters, Blueprint for a New World, Part 2: Eco. I am an anarchist. My body is a hand. It holds a pink cloud called resurgent anger.
History can be worked with my hand. We all have hands. We release our pink clouds. Into the essay structure in psychology, streets. We have clouds in our mouths. Because mouths are symbolic of palms. History neither began, nor will end. Sometimes I envision a mysterious egg of light. Opening above my head. It’s like a hysterical film still.
That liberated itself from a movie, And I pretend like I don’t see it, Like it’s not happening to me. Thought is a sensual instrument, brother anarchist. Sister anarchist, action is the sometimes song of thought.
Here she is personified as your blood sister who has fallen. On the an essay, street, perhaps having twisted her ankle. After having tripped on some metal protrusion. That’s sticking up from the essay structure, ground. Listen to her song: An erotic whimper from pain or humming irritant, A gentle violence that rises and falls.
Be a good anarchist. Kneel down to caress. Her swollen ankle that’s raspberried. While the others pass and vanish, Then you two will sleep. The police will leave you alone. And storefront windows will shatter by themselves. And planes overhead will photograph your erotic sleep. In one another’s arms amid … what?
The fiery sleep of history. Everything on this Earth is Inevitable Because it’s Happened: The prince of the festival is the Lord of Time. He watches “in the distance” among pastel. Hills of thought, sad and delighted. The world of malleable future you envision. Is called “in the distance.” Overbearing. Gray figures languish “in the distance.” You are not mortal. You can stand, confronting clouds.
Advancing in a line on a street in the financial district, But where a god appears, there is different clarity. The Lord of Time languishes “in the distance.” Why is your mouth full of smoke, brother anarchist? Sister anarchist? Was it a psychoanalyst. In red buttons coolly explaining that anger. Is a natural appropriate response to violating behavior? Our boundaries have been crossed, brother. But the smoke gathering around your head. Does not belong to you, sister.
Overbearing figures are languishing. You should prefer a metaphoric fruit tree. From which hangs glass plasma. No, not having a say whether ecocide is going to whatever. Not being asked to participate in thesis othello a calm and nice debate. About should the tar sands expand or not. If you are not mortal, then you cannot. Have any will. Essay Structure In Psychology! If you know you are not mortal. Then you find yourselves behaving like listless. Bureaucrats, with “in the distance” before you.
And behind you. The languishing gray figures. Are your friends looking from rivers that are walls, Urging you there is nowhere to go here, There is essay rubric nowhere to go there. What separates Adbusters. From other political mags … What allows it top seller status. Among periodicals that call for. Violent overthrow of the capitalist state: Style.
There is no political language. Large gray forms are languishing. On mental hills “in the distance” The anarchists are invited into the hall. The prince of the festival isn’t of the present, Yet doesn’t come unannounced. There is fire in the glasses. Cloud expansion is seen as impolite, brutish, violent, indulgent. To make a point about the unspoken rules of the hall,
The anarchists have decided to expand their clouds. The erotic dream of the Lord of Time expands. “In the distance,” brother and sister anarchist. Put your fingers in your mouths. Your political language is in psychology stumbling. On your tongue’s avenue. Be good sweet anarchists and help her up.
Like we obsess over the placement. Of smoke on a doomed landscape. The Lord of Time languishes in the distance. Eroticism is dark and dirty, But Deep Anger is strong an essay a form of structure in psychology, even love, Think the anarchists, each to his or herself.
The anarchists were invited to a dinner party. There was smoke in the glasses. Large figures. Languished behind oddly hung drapery. It was impossible to of july audre, lose the structure, feeling. They were actually here among the guests, Enemies of life mingling, becoming metaphors, Transporting action into mere thought. These large figures in the hills.
Are not the clouds, the resurgent anger, But obviously they are. Anarchists felt Deep Anger. They all agreed it was Deep Anger. The prince of the festival watched from “in the distance,” Sad and delighted at the erotic dreams of thesis othello, his childhood. David Nelson Pollock is a founding editor of Essays Fictions. By Danielle Marie Winterton.
The New York Time s recently ran an informative article on trigger warnings as applied to works of literature in college settings, but an early March New Republic article by Jennie Jarvie on essay structure, this topic covered much of the same ground while constructing a coherent argument against trigger warnings for development, the false impressions they lend the reader about how language and narrative function within the individual and the broader culture. Trigger warnings increase and “reinforce the fear of words,” Jarvie writes in essay reference to essay, trigger warnings as applied to classic works of literature such as Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart , which an Oberlin guide to trigger warnings used as an example, because it may “trigger readers who have experienced racism, colonialism, religious persecution, violence, suicide and more.” Jarvie also pointed out that a Rutgers University sophomore recently requested an alert for in psychology, F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby that said “TW: suicide, domestic abuse and graphic violence.” It is fascinating to watch values gain momentum to crescendo into study assignments unexpected outcomes. Here we see the instinct to protect the vulnerable collide with the radical imperative of great works of essay, literature to explicate the outcomes of the social systems in which readers are enmeshed. Thesis Othello! Both of these books are devastatingly successful in showing how individuals are crushed under the wheels of unfettered colonialism and capitalism. In Things Fall Apart , a village splinters under the introduction of new influences; in structure The Great Gatsby , people who are glib and development thesis, superficial are also hideously and thoughtlessly wealthy. In both narratives, the end result is violence to innocent and structure, vulnerable people. It is assignments bad enough that many people feel helpless to structure, make significant social change in essay test rubric their lives and essay structure in psychology, communities; trigger warnings ask us to consider averting our eyes to even the artistic representation of the outcomes of calcified class structures and development economics thesis, the sacrificial role of some members of society. The Times article quotes Greg Lukianoff, president of The Foundation for Individual Rights in Education , an organization that advocates for structure in psychology, free speech, as saying this call for trigger warnings seems inevitable in a society where people increasingly expect physical and intellectual comfort.
I appreciate this consumerist reading, having long noticed that many book reviewers, amateur and strong to end, professional, only in psychology seem to read as consumers, picking out what they like and dislike, want or don’t want, from a text, rather than being analyzing it through theoretical filters or in various historical, cultural, or even literary contexts. Audre Lorde! But I wonder if all people increasingly expect comfort, as he claims, or if this is more specific to undergraduates, who are essentially in the toddler phase of adulthood, grabbing everything they can and stuffing it into their undeveloped intellects, and structure in psychology, choosing what pleases them to drop into their own curriculum shopping bag. Insidious skepticism of discomfort with artistic material applies to other mediums as well. Many were ready to throw out Woody Allen’s entire body of work because they were uncomfortable with his films’ sexualization of young women in business law term light of accusations made my his daughter and ex-partner. Around the same time, HBO smash hit mini-series True Detective was also derided for images of violence perpetuated on women’s bodies. One liberal value proclaims that visual and literary art is a safe space in which we can explore our darkest corners, both personal and social, and that catharsis through art is the very best way to structure in psychology, grapple with these urges and tame them, rather than indulge them in actual practice, or ignore them and pretend they aren’t there, which can lead to repression or a loss of behavioral control.
Yet another liberal value aims to shield the victim of violent social forces from re-traumatization in any mode or mechanism, and asks all people of conscience to side on behalf of the victim and demand accountability, however subjective, from the perpetrator. How to reconcile these two contradictory, seemingly sound propositions? Regarding trigger warnings applied to literature, Jarvie brings us out of the dilemma with her good-sense reminder that a trigger warning fundamentally misunderstands the way language works. Meaning in language is not fixed, and no two people react to the same text in the same way: “understanding words as devices that activate a mechanism or cause a situation—promotes a rigid, overly deterministic approach to language,” she writes. She continues: “There is no rational basis for applying warnings because there is no objective measure of words’ potential harm. Of course, words can inspire intense reactions, but they have no intrinsic danger. Two people who have endured similarly painful experiences, from othello, rape to war, can read the same material and respond in structure wholly different ways.”
Literature and great art in any medium often intend to disturb by reflecting social values in essay need of change back to the reader or viewer. Without this undiluted, unqualified reflection, how do we learn the truth about ourselves? Further, Jarvie points out that trigger warnings reinforce the fear of words by depicting language as requiring regulation. It is not hard to imagine how far this tendency may spread. Engaging with ideas involves risk, Jarvie writes, and essay structure in psychology, taking an increasingly solipsistic perspective to critical engagement with text only further isolates the individual and blunts the essay test, crucial intellectual exploration that literature, and, for that matter, college, needs to facilitate. Danielle Marie Winterton is a co-founding editor of Essays Fictions. Everybody Knows This is Nowhere: The Web of structure in psychology, Journalistic Transparency. By Danielle Marie Winterton.
Last fall in development thesis the New York Times , Glenn Greenwald and Bill Keller debated about structure, whether or not contemporary web journalists have problematic allegiances to law term, their subjects. Essay In Psychology! The conversation sufficiently displayed the current range of case study assignments, public disagreement on the merest definitions of transparency and objectivity. Keller tried to essay in psychology, draw a distinction between “crusaders” or “muckrakers” and the more sophisticated investigative journalism of the audre essays, New York Times during Watergate and in psychology, the more recent torture exposes. He writes that in the old tradition of fourth of july audre lorde essays, journalism, you either hid your allegiances, or pretended you had none, in the interest of essay in psychology, appearing as objective as possible: “Journalists in thesis this tradition have plenty of in psychology, opinions,” he writes, “but by setting them aside to follow the facts — as a judge in court is supposed to set aside prejudices to essay test rubric, follow the law and the evidence — they can often produce results that are more substantial and more credible.” Greenwald countered that journalism absolutely has to pass rigorous standards of fact-checking and essay in psychology, fairness, but challenged the ways, view that it was possible to be as objective as Keller claimed: “I think those values are promoted by being honest about one’s perspectives and subjective assumptions rather than donning a voice-of-god, view-from-nowhere tone that falsely implies that journalists reside above the normal viewpoints and structure, faction-loyalties that plague the development, non-journalist and the dreaded ‘activist.”” It is nearly impossible to skirt the outright classist and white supremacist implications of insisting that the “old” standards of journalism (which bear similarities to the “old” ideas of objectivity in acadamia and the sciences, creating and clinging to the holiness and sanctity of the structure, “expert,” the one who is test capable of rooting “truth” out of essay in psychology, a mass of contradictory and chaotic data) are capable of case study, speaking for all peoples everywhere. Keller’s voice glibly monotones that he knows best and that the adolescent brash Greenwald is just too fiery for his own good or that of the readers. Greenwald gets the last word: “Embedded in the New York Times’ institutional perspective and reporting methodologies are all sorts of structure in psychology, quite debatable and subjective political and cultural assumptions about the world,” he insists. “And with some noble exceptions, The Times, by design or otherwise, has long served the interests of the strong ways to end an essay, same set of elite and powerful factions. Its reporting is essay structure no less ‘activist,’ subjective or opinion-driven than the new media voices it sometimes condescendingly scorns.” By now you must have surmised that I come down more on Greenwald’s side of ways, this debate, though I still have questions about the structure, ability of any writer to accurately understand the nature of her/his own bias. Today, as perfectly evidenced by hyperlinks and social networking communication behaviors, hiding is much harder than it used to be, as pointed out by New York Times public editor Margaret Sullivan earlier this year.
She outlines a sort of business paper, after-the-fact vigilante detective work undertaken to uncover allegiances between a writer and his or her subject, in order to cast a different light on the content of the work. Essay Structure! Whether that detective work is done to discredit the piece entirely or simply to add a shade of nuance depends on who is economics thesis investigating and what they are looking for as much as it is the content of the illuminated allegiance. Sullivan’s foundational source, David Weinberger, writes that “transparency brings us to reliability the essay in psychology, way objectivity used to.” We used objectivity as a trust mechanism when a writer’s sources were opaque to ways to end an essay, us, which they no longer are thanks to the internet. Objectivity was a stone, while transparency is a web, and “transparency brings us to essay structure, reliability the ideas, way objectivity used to.” An important distinction, though: objectivity fostered and essay structure in psychology, established credibility (even if only the essay rubric, semblance of credibility), while transparency can easily slip into the murky end-state of Absolute Relativity. Essay Structure! This is development quite evident on essay, an interface like Facebook, where the expertise or status of each individual is reduced to a singular value among no other greater or lesser values.
A collective laziness can seep in: how many readers take the time to track down the elements of the fourth of july audre essays, web in essay structure in psychology each article they read? And how many writers take care to vigorously self-report their most important pieces of information and relevant affiliations and with rigorous accuracy? The answer is, of development thesis, course, that it varies wildly depending on a host of factors including publication, editor, and technical capacities. More interesting than a writers’ personal allegiances, though, are his or her biases regarding relationship to reality. Structure In Psychology! How transparent can a writer be about the way he or she construes, relates to, and conveys information, to facts, and to truth?
The implications of fourth lorde, this relationship provide crucial insight into a writer’s choices regarding which facts, statistics, opinions, themes, and contexts they incorporate into their work, and if transparency is to be the useful tool it is purported to be, the reader needs to know not just about the writer’s personal and professional relations, but about his subjective biases and ideological leaps of faith as well. Danielle Marie Winterton is a co-founding editor of Essays Fictions.