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antacid homework Doc Brown's KS3 Chemistry. KS3 SCIENCE-Chemistry QCA Unit 7E Acids and alkalis. Paper? QCA 7E Acids and alkalis Multiple Choice Questions for Science revision on common acids/alkalis - pH scale, indicators, neutralisation reaction, uses etc. * KS3 Science multiple Choice Quizzes for chemistry, worksheets and compare essay practice chemistry questions for pupils revising Key Stage 3 science tests revision help for secondary students * In the unit you should learn how to paper dissertation, . classify acids and alkalis as chemicals with distinct properties and uses. use indicators to classify solutions as acidic, alkaline or neutral. use the term papers on casino gambling pH scale to compare the acidity and paper alkalinity of different solutions. begin to explore neutralisation i.e. the reaction between an acid and an alkali. interpret observations, making comparisons and seeing simple patterns. investigate fairly the effectiveness of different antacids i.e. Another Earth Essay Contest? compare their ability to neutralise acids recognise and deal with risks and paper dissertation hazards relating to acids and alkalis. name some common acids and compare contrast high school alkalis. classify solutions as acidic, alkaline or neutral, using indicators and pH values. describe what happens to the pH of a solution when it is neutralised describe some everyday uses of acids, alkalis and paper neutralisation. Forms Of Business? know that soluble solids dissolve and form solutions, substances that don't dissolve are insoluble have had experience of mixing materials and paper dissertation seeing that new materials are formed as a result of a reaction between them understand the difference between a reversible and irreversible change (physical or chemical) Some important words for you to understand, use and spell correctly. names of laboratory acids and alkalis, eg hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide names of classes of chemical, eg acid, alkali, salts words with different meanings in scientific and everyday contexts, eg indicator, solution, neutral, react, equation, weakly, strongly words with similar but distinct meanings, eg harmful, corrosive, caustic, sour, irritant words and phrases relating to scientific enquiry, eg hazard, risk, pH range, evaluate, strength of evidence, alkaline, acidic, neutral, indicator, universal indicator, colour change, dilute, ? What are acids and alkalis like and where do we use them? many household materials are acids and are not hazardous eg lemon juice or vinegar identify some everyday uses of acids, eg fruit juices or vinegar in foods, medicines like aspirin, using acids to forms of business, clean materials like metal plates, oven cleaners can be strongly alkaline recognise and interpret common hazard signs for harmful, irritant and corrosive substances how to deal with acids or alkalis if they are spilt/splashed on the skin eg dilute/wash with lots of water adding water to an acid or alkali solution dilutes it and makes it less hazardous describe how to work safely with acids and alkalis and what to do if a spill occurs, e.g. Dissertation? wear safety goggles, dilute split acids/alkalis acids are distinguished from alkalis using indicators such as litmus or universal indicator (both turn red in acid (pH 3) or blue in alkali (pH 9), but universal has lots of essay colours to get a more accurate estimate of the pH including green for neutral pH7 and how strongly acid from pH 6 to 1 and how strongly alkaline from 8 to dissertation, 1 etc.4) common names, eg caustic soda (sodium hydroxide), bicarbonate of soda (sodium hydrogencarbonate), may be used where appropriate. Adding water to concentrated sulphuric acid is hazardous because the reaction is highly exothermic, so concentrated sulphuric acid should be diluted by adding a small amount of the concentrated acid to on casino gambling, a lot of water. know that sulfur is the internationally accepted spelling and paper dissertation sulphuric acid can be called sulfuric acid.

How can acids and compare contrast high alkalis be identified and paper distinguished from each other? how to extract the dyes from plant materials and frankenstein and society essay that acids and alkalis can change the colours of some of these natural dyes and that this can be used to classify them eg from red cabbage, raw beetroot, blackcurrant, litmus, to test and classify solutions as acidic, neutral or alkaline, using indicators compare the results with different dyes and establish that there are two classes of solution and dissertation that the dyes can indicate which is which recognise that solutions of experienced essay dyes which show one 'indicator' colour in acids and another in alkalis are called indicators recall the paper names of some common laboratory acids eg hydrochloric acid, sulphuric acid, sodium hydroxide, and alkalis e.g. sodium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide. Is there a range of another earth acidity and alkalinity? universal indicator gives a range of paper colours in forms organization, acidic and paper dissertation alkaline solutions (typically from pH 0-14) that pH numbers indicate how acidic or alkaline a solution is that neutral solutions are pH 7, acidic solutions are below pH 7 and alkaline solutions are above pH 7 the pH of a solution can be got from an appropriate colour chart eg when using universal indicator classify the solution as strongly/weakly, acidic/alkaline, or neutral relate their classification to the use of the the body of an acid or alkali and associated hazards At this stage, pH can be used to describe strongly or weakly acidic or alkaline solutions. predict the effect on pH of making an acid more dilute or more concentrated and how this would affect its corrosiveness. When diluted, acids still give a pH 7, but when diluted the pH will rise since the solution would be less strongly acidic. What happens when an acid is added to an alkali? the paper dissertation uses of acids and alkalis in a range of everyday situations, eg hair and skin care, treatment of stings and bites, treatment of indigestion, food preservation, treatment of soil. how living things use acids, eg ants, nettles, humans in digestion. identify and note key points about the range of pH used and potential harmful effects, that a neutral solution can be obtained by adding an acid to an alkali in the right proportions the changes in pH when a solution of an acid is added drop by drop to a solution of an alkali describe that when an compare essay school acid is added to an alkali, the pH of the mixture falls as it become neutralised describe that when an dissertation alkali is added to an acid, the pH of the mixture increases as it become neutralised explain how to term papers, obtain a neutral solution of about pH7 by mixing an acid and an alkali describe with a graph the way pH changes as more alkali is added investigate changes in temperature during neutralisation and be introduced to the idea that a chemical reaction is taking place neutralisation is paper dissertation, exothermic, which means heat is another essay, given out, so the paper dissertation temperature rises. Where is neutralisation important? the alkali lime is used to treat soil that is too acid for healthy plant growth acid bee stings can be treated with a weak alkali like bicarbonate of another soda or calomine (zinc oxide paste) and alkaline wasp stings can be treated with a weak acid like vinegar too much stomach acid! - common antacid indigestion remedies - how are the remedies are intended to work? what sort of solution would work and be safe to take? antacids are mild alkalis including bicarbonate of soda (alka-selza) and magnesium hydroxide ('milk of magnesia') suggest ways in which one remedy might be more effective than others investigating the effectiveness of antacids: does one tablet of each antacid neutralise the paper dissertation same amount of acid? do the referencing within essay antacids neutralise acid equally quickly? how can you follow the neutralisation? e.g. by adding universal indicator and following the paper dissertation colour change how can you measure how much acid is neutralised by a particular mass of 'antacid' powder? is the earth essay reaction is fast or slow to paper dissertation, the neutralisation point? Doc Brown's Chemistry Revision KS3 Science CHEMISTRY Unit 7E Acids and alkalis. What the Quiz is based on - original work schemes - programmes of study.

All of KS3 Science is now under review. and the quizzes will be adapted to suit the NEW National Curriculum for KS3 Science. In this unit pupils: • learn about acids and alkalis as classes of chemicals with distinct properties and uses. • use indicators to classify solutions as acidic, alkaline or neutral. • use the pH scale to compare the acidity and frankenstein alkalinity of different solutions. • begin to explore neutralisation. Paper? In scientific enquiry pupils: • recognise hazards and use information sources to assess risks associated with acids and alkalis. • make and present qualitative observations. Within The Body? • interpret qualitative observations, making comparisons and identifying simple patterns. • investigate the effectiveness of different antacids, controlling appropriate variables. This unit is expected to take approximately 7 hours.

Where the unit fits in. Dissertation? This unit uses ideas developed in the key stage 2 programme of study. It builds on papers, unit 6C ‘More about dissolving’ and unit 6D ‘Reversible and irreversible changes’ in the key stage 2 scheme of dissertation work. This unit introduces pupils to chemicals, reactions and practical techniques which are likely to be new to them, through using a range of acids and alkalis encountered in essay contest, familiar and laboratory contexts. It lays the foundation for work on reactions of acids in unit 9E ‘Reactions of metals and metal compounds’ and work on carbonate rocks in unit 8G ‘Rocks and weathering’ and unit 8H ‘The rock cycle’. At the paper end of this unit. in terms of scientific enquiry.

most pupils will: obtain and present qualitative results in a way which helps to essay, show patterns; describe how to deal with hazards relating to acids and dissertation alkalis; suggest how to of business, investigate a question about antacids, planning and making a fair comparison. some pupils will not have made so much progress and will: obtain and present qualitative results; describe some hazards of acids and alkalis; explain how they made a fair comparison in dissertation, their investigation into and society essay, antacids. some pupils will have progressed further and paper dissertation will: explain how their conclusions match the organization evidence obtained and suggest ways in which the paper dissertation data collected could be improved. in another earth essay contest, terms of materials and their properties. Paper Dissertation? most pupils will: name some common acids and alkalis and term papers on casino gambling classify solutions as acidic, alkaline or neutral, using indicators and pH values; describe what happens to the pH of paper dissertation a solution when it is neutralised; describe some everyday uses of acids, alkalis and neutralisation. some pupils will not have made so much progress and will: name some common acids and frankenstein essay alkalis; state some everyday uses of acids and alkalis and classify solutions using indicators. some pupils will have progressed further and dissertation will: explain how a neutral solution can be obtained and relate the referencing within essay pH value of an acid or alkali to its hazards and corrosiveness. It is helpful if pupils: • know that solids can dissolve and form solutions. • have experience of mixing materials and seeing that new materials are formed as a result of paper dissertation a reaction. Health and safety. Risk assessments are required for any hazardous activity. In this unit pupils: • work with acids and organization essay alkalis. • plan their own investigations into antacids. Paper Dissertation? Model risk assessments used by most employers for normal science activities can be found in the publications listed in the Teacher’s guide . Teachers need to follow these as indicated in another contest, the guidance notes for the activities, and paper dissertation consider what modifications are needed for individual classroom situations. Language for learning. Frankenstein And Society? Through the activities in this unit pupils will be able to understand, use and spell correctly: • names of laboratory acids and alkalis, eg hydrochloric acid , sodium hydroxide. Paper? • names of classes of chemical, eg acid, alkali. • words with different meanings in scientific and everyday contexts, eg indicator, solution, neutral, react, equation. • words with similar but distinct meanings, eg harmful, corrosive, caustic. Referencing Within Of An? • words and phrases relating to paper, scientific enquiry, e g hazard, risk, pH range, evaluate, strength of evidence. Through the activities pupils could: • ask questions to gain clarification and further information, eg why, how, what then. • find information, eg using contents, index, glossary, key words, hotlinks. • household acids and of an essay alkalis (not bleaches), together with containers. • Hazcards and transport hazard warnings identifying hazards associated with acids and alkalis.

• range of plant material from which indicator dyes can be extracted, eg red cabbage, blackcurrants. Paper? • pH sensor linked to a computer. • advertisements for products, eg for of business organization skin and hair care, which refer to pH. • reference sources, including ICT sources, providing information about domestic and everyday uses/problems relating to acids and alkalis. • use the internet to search for information, using key words about uses and hazards of paper acids and alkalis. • observe hazard signs on transport vehicles and in public places. What are acids and alkalis like and where do we use them? • that many household materials are acids and essay revision are not hazardous. • Elicit pupils’ ideas about acids by asking them to work in dissertation, pairs or small groups to suggest words they would use to describe an acid and examples of referencing of an where acids are used. • Show pupils a range of household acids that can be safely handled, eg vinegar, fruit juices, and ask them to explore and describe the appearance and smell of these. If appropriate, pupils could be asked to taste drops of the solutions that are food products. Provide packaging or labels from additional household materials (that do not have hazard warnings) and ask pupils to find the names of acids contained in them. • Ask pupils to compare what they found with the paper ideas they had about acids, and to highlight differences. • identify some acids, eg vinegar, lemon juice. • identify some everyday uses of acids, eg in foods, medicines, cleaning materials. • This activity could be used to another earth essay contest, reinforce the idea that not all colourless liquids are water. Pupils are likely to have worked with liquids other than water at key stage 2. – eye protection should be used when working with acids and alkalis. Teachers should follow school procedures for dealing with spills and dissertation splashes. – scrupulous hygiene must be observed in term gambling, all tasting activities. • to recognise and interpret common hazard signs. • to select key ideas from written material. • how to deal with acids or alkalis if they are spilt or splashed on the skin. • that adding water to an acid or alkali solution dilutes it and makes it less hazardous. • Provide pupils with containers for household and laboratory acids and alkalis with hazard warning labels, student safety sheets, Hazcards and information about hazard symbols and ask them to describe the distinctions between them and why the materials they used in the previous activity did not have hazard labels. Ask pupils to suggest how the acids and alkalis could be made less hazardous. • Consider hazard warning signs used when acids and dissertation alkalis are transported by road.

• Ask pupils to suggest why different acids and another alkalis are labelled differently and to suggest safety procedures for working with acids and alkalis. Agree a common set of procedures, which should include use of eye protection. • identify hazard symbols for harmful, irritant and corrosive substances. • describe how to work safely with acids and alkalis and what to do if a spill occurs. • explain that if water is added to dissertation, an acid or alkali it dilutes it and papers gambling the solution becomes less hazardous. • In the dissertation next activity, acids are distinguished from alkalis using indicators. • CLEAPSS produces Hazcards and student safety sheets. • At this stage common names, eg caustic soda, bicarbonate of soda, can be used where appropriate. • Adding water to concentrated sulphuric acid is hazardous because the reaction is highly exothermic. Concentrated sulphuric acid should be diluted by adding the acid to water. • It may be helpful to point out that sulfur is the internationally accepted spelling. – containers should be sealed or empty. How can acids and alkalis be identified and contrast high distinguished from each other? • to devise a table to show results effectively and to identify patterns in these. • that acids and dissertation alkalis can change the colours of some dyes and that this can be used to classify them. • the names of some common laboratory acids and alkalis. • to classify solutions as acidic or alkaline, using indicators. • Establish, by quick questioning, that pupils recall key ideas about safety. • Provide pupils with solutions of dyes extracted from plant material, eg red cabbage, raw beetroot, blackcurrant, litmus, and ask them to explore and record the frankenstein and society effect of adding household and laboratory acids and alkalis to the dyes. Dissertation? • Compare the results with different dyes and establish, by comparing results from the class, that there are two classes of solution and contrast essay prompts that the dyes can indicate which is which. Introduce the paper terms ‘indicator’ and ‘alkali’. The Body? • Provide pupils with a range of acidic and alkaline solutions and indicators and ask them to use the indicators to identify and paper dissertation record whether the solutions are acidic or alkaline. • present their results in a way which helps them identify patterns. • recognise that solutions of dyes which show one colour in acids and organization another in alkalis are called indicators. • recall the names of paper some common laboratory acids and on casino gambling alkalis. • use their record of results to identify which solutions are acidic and which are alkaline. • Pupils could extract the dyes from plant materials themselves if they are familiar with the techniques required. – avoid the use of bleach, drain cleaner or descaler. Paper? 0.4 mol dm -3 laboratory acids and alkalis can be used for this activity. None are hazard­ous although some are irritants, and eye protection is needed.

In general, alkalis are more hazardous to skin and eyes than acids of forms essay a similar concentration. Is there a range of acidity and alkalinity? • that universal indicator gives a range of dissertation colours in within the body essay, acidic and alkaline solutions. Dissertation? • that pH numbers indicate how acidic or alkaline a solution is. • that neutral solutions are pH7, acidic solutions below 7 and alkaline solutions above 7. • Demonstrate the essay school use of universal indicator paper or solution to paper dissertation, obtain a pH number for referencing within of an a few solutions previously tested. Ask pupils to explore the range of pH of solutions previously tested (including some neutral solutions) and to see if they can relate them to earlier work on hazard labels. • identify the paper pH of a given solution from an appropriate colour chart. • classify the solution as strongly or weakly acidic or alkaline, or neutral. • relate their classification to writers essay, the use of the acid or alkali and associated hazards. • Full-range universal indicator pH0–14 should be used for this activity. • At this stage, pH can be used to describe strongly or weakly acidic or alkaline solutions. It is not necessary to discuss the paper dissertation difference between weak and strong, and dilute and concentrated, although the appropriate terms should be used. • Extension: pupils could be asked to predict the effect on pH of making an acid more dilute or more concentrated and how this would affect its corrosiveness. – 0.4 mol dm -3 solutions can be used for this activity. None are hazardous, although some are irritant and compare contrast essay prompts school eye protection is needed. What happens when an acid is added to an alkali? • that acids and paper dissertation alkalis are used in of business organization essay, a range of everyday situations. Dissertation? • how to find information, eg using contents, index, glossary, key words, hotlinks. • to select and note appropriate information about uses and effects of compare high acids and alkali. Dissertation? • Ask pupils to use a range of reference sources including advertisements to find information about the use of acids and alkalis in a range of everyday situations, eg hair and skin care, treatment of stings and bites, treatment of indigestion, food preservation, treatment of another earth contest soil. Ask them to find out how living things use acids, eg ants, nettles, humans in digestion. Agree with pupils key words they need to use and remind them how to use an index, glossary or search facility. Ask them to identify and paper note key points about the range of pH used and potential harmful effects, and to explain these to other pupils either orally or by contributing to an information folder. • identify uses of acids and alkalis and the benefits and potential hazards of contrast essay school these. • communicate clearly key points about a particular use of acids or alkalis. • Advertisements for skin-care and dissertation hair-care products could be used to introduce this activity. • Most pupils will need to earth essay contest, be guided towards suitable sources of information, eg websites such as. www.miamisci.org . A class information folder could be built up and discussed and additional applications added as pupils work through the unit. • that when an acid is added to an alkali, it lowers the pH. • that a neutral solution can be obtained by adding an acid to an alkali. • Ask pupils to explore what happens to the pH when a solution of an acid is added drop by drop to a solution of an alkali.

Challenge pupils to predict what will happen if more acid is added, or if alkali is added to an acid, and test their predictions using a pH monitor and datalogger. • describe that when an acid is added to an alkali, the pH of the mixture falls and vice versa. Paper? • explain how to obtain a neutral solution. • find information in reference books, on CD-ROMs, or from databases. • ICT: pH logging using ICT could be used to record changes and generate a graph. • Teachers may wish to emphasise that acidity and alkalinity are measured on a continuous scale. • Extension: pupils could be asked to describe what computer-generated graphs show about the way pH changes as more alkali is contrast essay prompts school, added. • Extension: pupils could be asked to investigate changes in temperature during neutralisation and paper be introduced to the idea that a chemical reaction is taking place. – 0.4 mol dm -3 solutions of acid and alkali can be used. These may be irritant, so eye protection is needed. • to summarise key ideas about acids, alkalis and neutralisation. • Help pupils to work in groups to produce questions about acids, alkalis and neutralisation, which will help clarify their thoughts. Pupils ask others to answer or find the answers to forms of business essay, their questions. Use all the questions and paper answers and, together with the pupils, agree a summary of key ideas. • identify key questions about experienced revision acids and alkalis. • use correct scientific terminology in answering questions. • Later activities in this unit offer the opportunity for consolidation of key ideas for paper pupils who need this. • Extension: pupils could also be asked to compare essay, explore whether mass is conserved as neutralisation takes place. This idea is covered more fully in unit 9H ‘Using chemistry’.

Where is neutralisation important? • how to dissertation, frame a question that can be investigated. • how to writers essay, use preliminary work to help decide what to measure or to observe. • to dissertation, choose appropriate techniques and equipment. • to compare their investigative method and evidence collected with those of others. And Society Essay? • to work with others in summarising information and evaluating a product. • Remind pupils of earlier work about acid in the stomach. Show pupils a range of packages and leaflets for some common antacid indigestion remedies and ask them to identify how the remedies are intended to work and to suggest what sort of solution would work and be safe to take. Paper Dissertation? • Ask them to suggest ways in which one remedy might be more effective than others and how they might investigate their suggestions. • Encourage a range of different investigations, eg Does one tablet of each antacid neutralise the same amount of earth essay acid? Do the dissertation antacids neutralise acid equally quickly? Ask pupils to write a brief account of their suggestions, results and what they found out, to share with other groups in the class. Encourage pupils to question each other about of business what they did and what they found out. Paper Dissertation? • Compile a summary of the outcomes of all investigations as an evaluation of indigestion remedies. • decide on a suitable question to investigate and suitable techniques for doing so. • summarise what they have found out.

• demonstrate understanding of the strength of evidence through the questions they ask. • use the evidence collected to evaluate an indigestion remedy. • This activity offers pupils the opportunity to see how work carried out by different groups can be evaluated and synthesised. • It is possible to simulate different antacids by mixing bicarbonate of soda and salt in varying proportions. • It may be helpful to review words used on commercial products, eg antacid , and compare them with scientific terms, eg alkali, as pupils may be confused by the change in frankenstein and society essay, terminology. • As an alternative, pupils could be asked to investigate differences in the acid content of a range of soft drinks. – teachers should check pupils’ plans for dissertation health and the body of an safety before practical work begins. • to relate ideas about acids and paper alkalis to each other. • Help pupils to bring together their knowledge about term papers on casino gambling acids and alkalis by asking them to produce a concept map using terms encountered, eg acid, alkali, strongly acidic, weakly acidic, weakly alkaline, strongly alkaline, neutral, indicator, universal indicator, colour change, corrosive, sour. Ask pupils to comment on others’ maps and additional connections, explaining those shown. • identify relationships between key ideas. • explain why connections were made. • A concept map shows connections between different ideas in a particular topic and is a useful source of information about pupils’ understanding. Many pupils will be familiar with making concept maps from their work in primary science. Some pupils will require help, eg a range of terms could be written on a large sheet of paper and pupils asked to draw lines between those they think are linked, and to write a phrase or sentence on the lines explaining why they have linked those terms.

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Essay: Erick Erickson’s eight stages of dissertation development. Abstract: This paper will discuss the eight stages of development. these eight stages include trust vs untrust, autonomy versus shame and doubt, initiative versus guilt, industry versus inferiority, identity versus role confusion, intimacy versus isolation, generativity versus stagnation and term papers gambling integrity versus despair. This paper will also discuss the ultimate goals for each one of those stages of development and what the outcome should be in each stage. Additionally this paper will discuss some of the recent developments and applications of paper Erickson’s eight stages of development theory. Some those developments and applications include the eight stages of recovery model, a correlation between unmet expectations in one stage of forms of business organization essay development and how that could possibly contribute to personality disorders of dissertation certain types. This paper also will discuss how these stages are being applied to within the body nursing education. Also this paper will discuss how these eight stages of development are now being applied to school guidance counselor training and being compared to stages of development in leadership roles.

This paper will also discuss how these developmental stages are different for the homosexual male. This paper will also discuss some of the different obstacles that homosexual males must face during some of these stages. Thesis statement: This paper will discuss Erick Erickson’s eight stages of development along with the history of Erickson and the dilemmas of the eight stages. Erickson’s history: Acording to paper Cornett, C. (2000), Eric Erickson was born in 1902 in another earth essay contest Frankfurt Germany (Cornett, C. 2000). He began his studies as an paper dissertation, art student in Europe. He was invited by forms organization essay, Anna Freud to teach art, history and geography at a small school of Vienna. He later began training to become a psychoanalyst as well. Dissertation. During this time he became interested in children and in 1930 he published his first paper regarding children. Forms. In 1933 he was elected to the Vienna psychoanalytic institute at paper dissertation the time of completing psychoanalytic training.

Later in 1933 he immigrated to United States where he joined the faculty at Harvard medical school. He also began to practice child psychoanalysis in Boston. Erik H. Erikson. Essay Revision. (2014) tells us that Erickson left Harvard in paper 1936 to join The Institute of referencing Human Relations at Yale (Erik H. Erikson. 2014). There he began his studies of cultural influences on psychological development while working with the Sioux Indians in South Dakota. During these studies is when Erickson began to form his theory of the eight developmental stages. This is when he noticed that different cultures and different societies come across similar patterns of problems that need to dissertation be negotiated at different stages of contrast essay school development. In 1939 Erickson moved to San Francisco where he became a professor of dissertation psychology at the University of California in 1942. According to Cornett, C. (2000), During this time at the University of California he produced several essays that discussed childhood and society (Cornett, C. 2000).

These were the writers essay revision, first major writings and discussions of dissertation Erickson’s eight stages of development. Erickson believed that each of the eight stages presented its own challenges that needed to be overcome if you were going to be successful in forms organization essay the next stage of life. Each of the stages had its own moral dilemmas and each stage continued from one to another as the personality developed. These eight stages can also overlap each other for short periods of time between one stage to another. Dissertation. Erickson left the University of California in 1950 because he refused to sign a letter of loyalty with the university. He left the essay, University of California and went to Stockbridge Massachusetts where he joined the Austin Riggs canter. Erikson (2014), states that he later returned to paper dissertation Harvard as a lecturer and professor where he finished his career from 1970 till the time of his death (Erik H. Erikson 2014).

Eriksson’s history contributed greatly to his moral views which are heavily depicted in his theories of developmental stages. This paper will now discuss the eight stages in more detail. Erikson’s eight stages: According to Balswick and Balswick (2007) Erickson states That Erikson’s model contains eight developmental stages, the last emerging at approximately age 45. Erickson focuses on how parents and wider historical factors affect a person’s learning each stage’s developmental tasks. According to Balwick and Balswick (2007) overcoming the developmental tasks at each stage is vital to the successful achievement of the tasks at the next stage. Berger, states that the frankenstein, eight stages that a person comes across in their lifetime are trust versus untrust, autonomy versus shame and doubt, initiative versus guilt, industry versus inferiority, identity versus role confusion, intimacy versus isolation, generativity versus stagnation and integrity versus despair (Berger) . The trust versus mistrust stage occurs in infancy between birth and 18 months. In this stage babies must learn to trust their parents care and affection.

If the babies do not learn trust they could develop a distrusting view of the world. The autonomy versus shame and doubt stage occurs in the toddler age from 18 months to three years. Dissertation. The child learns basic things like how to feed themselves and do other things on their own. They start feeling ashamed if they do not start developing these basic abilities. The next stage is an initiative versus guilt. During the initiative versus guilt stage children are 3 to experienced writers essay revision 5 years old, typically at the preschool age, and start taking initiative and carrying out dissertation, plans and term gambling planning things or they develop a sense of guilt over their misbehavior. The industry versus inferiority stage occurs between the ages of five and paper dissertation ten. During this stage children learn to of business essay follow the rules at paper dissertation home, school, church or other places. The child can start believing they are inferior to others if they do not learn to follow the rules.

The next stage is identity versus role confusion. The identity versus role confusion stage occurs in adolescents between the earth essay, ages of 11 and paper dissertation 18 years of age. During this stage they acquire a sense of identity of essay revision who they are starting to become or they become confused about paper, whom they are and what the contest, role is in life. The next stage is intimacy versus isolation. During this stage the children are no longer children they become adults. The intimacy versus isolation stage occurs between ages 18 to 40. During this stage young adults often develop relationships and joint identities or they can become isolated and stay away from meaningful relationships.

After the intimacy versus isolation stage is the generativity versus stagnation stage. This stage occurs at middle adulthood between 40 and 65 years of age. During generativity versus stagnation stage a person makes use of time and have concerns with helping others and guiding the paper dissertation, next generation or they become self-centered and stagnant not helping to further the term, next generation. Finally in paper the integrity versus despair stage of referencing the body development is in paper dissertation the late adulthood from age 60 on up. During integrity versus despair stage a person understands and accepts the term papers on casino, meaning of temporary life. . In other words understanding that life is temporary not permanent or they complain about regrets such as not having enough time and paper not finding their meaning throughout life. Salkind, N. J. (2005) states, that the younger children can benefit from the lifelong experiences of the of an essay, elders (Salkind, N. J. 2005).

According to Sacco, R. G. (2013), to reach the final stage of paper maturity and development with a sufficient sense of achieving integrity one must have achieved trust, autonomy, initiative, industry, identity, intimacy, and generativity during the previous seven sequential stages (Sacco, R. Contrast Prompts. G. 2013). This paper will now consider how the eight stages are being applied in dissertation counseling and therapy today. Areas of contrast essay prompts high school interest today: There are many ways that Erikson’s eight stages are being applied to therapy and other areas of psychology today. According to Vogel-scibilia, S., Mcnulty, K. C., Baxter, B., Miller, S., Dine, M., #038; Frese, F. J. (2009), one of the many areas of dissertation interest today is in the area of referencing the body addictions recovery. There is a recovery model that is liner to the eight stages of development (Vogel-scibilia, S., Mcnulty, K. C., Baxter, B., Miller, S., Dine, M., #038; Frese, F. J. 2009). The idea is to for the dissertation, patient in recovery to overcome the fundamental steps in each of contrast essay prompts high school these stages, and paper dissertation just like Erickson’s eight stages, you have to overcome one stage of recovery before moving onto the next stage just as you would in the stages of development. Today there is forms of business experimentation with the paper, idea of experienced writers revision re-addressing stages in patients’ lives that may not have been negotiated properly and paper may have hindered their psychological outlook today. This is being researched and applied to patients with personality disorders.

According to Crawford, Cohen, Johnson, Sneed #038; Brook, (2004),this research was based on the premise that personality disorders are often a continuation of identity confusion earlier on in life during adolescents (Crawford, Cohen, Johnson, Sneed #038; Brook, 2004). Also this experimentation with readdressing the eight stages of development only applies to cluster B personality disorders. It cannot automatically be assumed that you can apply this type of therapy to cluster A or cluster C disorders. This type of term on casino therapy is a little bit difficult when you get to the intimacy versus identity stage. Paper Dissertation. One of the difficulties is that Erickson’s theory does not necessarily identify the exact timing when individual should overcome the identity verses intimacy crisis in their lives. Future research will have to investigate this further and the body of an also adjustments may have to be made to this type of therapy in the future. Another area of interest as far as the Erickson’s stages of development would be in nursing.

Today nurses are getting acquainted with the developmental stages of psychosocial development. According to Newton DS, Newton PM, (1998), the theory is that this will help them understand the behaviour of the patient in context to their dramatic past experiences and their current developmental task (Newton DS, Newton PM, 1998). This is important because when a patient fails to resolve the previous psychosocial stage it may seriously compromise their adult development. Having an understanding of this gives the patient opportunity to rework a previous developmental stage with the assistance of a therapist. The object of this type of paper dissertation psychotherapy is to assist patients in overcoming each crisis in each developmental stage with an increased sense of good judgment and well-being according to their own standards and standards of compare contrast essay prompts school their loved ones.

When nurses understand underlining factors about the patient they may be able to paper understand the patient better. According to Studer, (2006), Erikson’s eight stages are being applied to guidance counsellor training. The guidance counsellors study the eight stages of development and use it to model different stages of development as a leader (Studer, 2006). Frankenstein. They can relate the stages of dissertation development to their identity as a leader because it is contrast essay prompts high school a lengthy process from when the trainee takes over paper dissertation, the course work of counselling to the time that he or she is fully developed as a leader or counsellor. This model helps them develop overtime. This helps the future guidance counsellor stay on track as to where he or she should be during each time frame throughout several years of training as a counsellor and leader. This paper will now go into a more controversial topic of discussion. This paper will now discuss how it is possible for forms organization gay men to have a harder time negotiating Erikson’s identity verses role confusion stage.

According to Macatee (1999) gay men go through a different developmental process when it comes to identity formation. The belief is that this can complicate the completion of the identity verses role confusion stage. The study also declares that the dissertation, difference in this stage is complicated by the homosexual individual feeling socially isolated and trying to perform roles more culturally accepted (Macatee 1999). These feelings of isolation can negatively effect adjustment to their roles, cause problems with intimacy and negatively affect their self-image. During this identity verses role confusion stage some homosexuals will deny their feelings for members of the same sex and revision take extreme measures to cover up and dissertation ignore their feelings. Some even go as far as participating in hetero sexual marriages to supress these feelings. Often times these are the essay, very same individuals that will have problems negotiating the identity verses role confusion stage because they do not deal with their real image of themselves. Paper Dissertation. By not dealing with their true feelings of who they are they get stuck in this stage of development because sooner or later they will have to term papers on casino deal with the truth.

Conclusion: In conclusion this paper has discussed Eric Erickson’s eight stages of development. This paper went into dissertation great detail of the history of Eric Erickson and how that history contributed to the development of the eight stages. Discussing his history we discussed where he went to school and when he discovered his interest in children and began writing about his theories update stages. This paper discussed at experienced writers great length the eight stages of development. Paper Dissertation. these eight stages include trust vs untrust, autonomy versus shame and doubt, initiative versus guilt, industry versus inferiority, identity versus role confusion, intimacy versus isolation, generativity versus stagnation and integrity versus despair. This paper later went on forms organization essay, to discuss the ultimate goals for each one of these stages of development and what the paper, outcome should be for healthy individual going into the next stage. Additionally this paper went on to discuss some of the recent developments and applications of Erickson’s eight stages of development theory. Some these recent developments and applications include the eight stages of recovery model which is linear to papers gambling Erickson’s eight stages of paper dissertation development, a correlation between unmet expectations in one stage of development and how that could possibly contribute to term gambling personality disorders of paper dissertation certain types. This paper also discussed how these stages can be applied to term on casino gambling nursing education giving them a better understanding of the patients and some other things that they may or may not have been able to overcome in their lives.

Also this paper discussed how these eight stages of development are now being applied to school guidance counselor training and dissertation how these stages of another essay contest development resemble potential stages of development in leadership roles. This paper also discussed that homosexual men go through different stages of development. This paper also discussed some of the different challenges that a homosexual man faces in the identity verses role confusion stage. This paper also explored some of the paper, complications with peer acceptance and going to prompts high school great lengths to cover up their identity. This paper then finished with discussion of the importance of self-acceptance.

Balswick, J. O., #038; Balswick, J. K. (2007). The family. (3rd ed.). Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic. Berger, K. The developing person through the life span. (Eighth ed.). Bronx, NY: Worth Publishers. Cornett, C. (2000). Ideas and identities: The life and work of erik erikson / identity’s architect: A biography of erik H erikson. Clinical Social Work Journal, 28(1), 123-128.

Retrieved. Crawford, T., Cohen, P., Johnson, J., Sneed, J., #038; Brook, J. (2004). Paper. The course and psychosocial correlates of personality disorder symptoms in adolescence: Erikson’s developmental theory revisited. Journal of Youth and referencing the body of an Adolescence, 33(5), 373-387. doi: Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers. Erik H. Erikson. (2014).

In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Paper Dissertation. Retrieved. Erikson E: Identity: Youth and Crisis. Norton, New York, 1968. Macatee, W. W. Essay. (1999). The impact of sexual orientation on the process of identity formation in adolescence as measured through imaginary audience and dissertation personal fable ideation. Writers Essay Revision. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities #038; Social Sciences, 60(6-A), 1905.

Retrieved from http://www.marshall.edu/jrcp/jrcp%20intro%20glbt/jrcp%20erikson.htm. Newton DS, Newton PM in Kaplan HI #038; Sadok BJ’s Synopsis of psychiatry-behavioural science or clinical psychiatry.9th edn. Hong Kong.William and Wilkinsons publications. 1998. Sacco, R. G. (2013). Re-envisaging the dissertation, eight developmental stages of erik erikson: The fibonacci life-chart method (FLCM).Journal of Educational and papers gambling Developmental Psychology, 3(1), 140-146. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1439824261?accountid=12085. Salkind, N. J. (2005). Dissertation. Erikson’s Stages of another essay contest Psychosocial Development. In S. W. Paper. Lee (Ed.), Encyclopedia of School Psychology (pp.

189-190). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications. Retrieved from http://go.galegroup.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CCX3453000096#038;v=2.1#038;u=vic_liberty#038;it=r#038;p=GVRL#038;sw=w#038;asid=1a4b3fca7b367ddfa876853009f360e0. Studer, J. R. (2006). Erik erikson’s psychosocial stages applied to contrast essay supervision. Paper. Guidance #038; Counseling;Spring2007, 21(3), 168. Vogel-scibilia, S., Mcnulty, K. C., Baxter, B., Miller, S., Dine, M., #038; Frese, F. J. Experienced Essay. (2009). The. recovery process utilizing erikson’s stages of human development. Community Mental.

Health Journal, 45(6), 405-14. Paper. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10597-009-9189-4. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Psychology essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to experienced writers a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Psychology work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Psychology essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows:

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Add and paper, Configure a Quiz Activity in Moodle. Papers On Casino Gambling. A Quiz in Moodle is a powerful and paper dissertation, adaptive activity that instructors can customize in numerous ways. This page explains how to add a Quiz activity to your course and reviews the many options you can set for delivering a quiz and providing feedback, for example, how many times it may be attempted, and whether students see feedback immediately or only experienced essay, after the quiz is closed. Paper Dissertation. This article covers creating a Quiz activity and setting the options available on the activity settings page. Once you have added the quiz you must open it to add questions. See Add or Edit Questions. You may also find it useful to look at our Overview of Quizzes in Moodle article.

For advice on using these settings to design a quiz that best fits your pedagogical goals, please contact the Instructional Media Lab 413-545-2823 or instruct@umass.edu. On your course page, click Turn editing on (top right). Links and icons will appear on the page. Locate the Section where you will add the Quiz. (If you are using the Collapsed topics format, open the Section .) At the another earth, bottom-right of the Section , click + Add an activity or resource. The Activity chooser will open. In the paper, Activity chooser , select Quiz. A description will be displayed at forms of business essay right.

Click Add . The Adding a new Quiz page will open. Configure settings for the Quiz. Paper Dissertation. For more information on these options, see Configure Quiz Options (below). At the bottom of the page, click Save and display . The next step is to Add or Edit Questions. Within Of An. On the Adding/Updating quiz page, click the headings to view the dissertation, settings under a heading, or click Expand all (top right) to view all settings. Term. Click Show more. at the bottom of an area to show additional options. Name (Required): Enter the text for the link to the Quiz that will appear on paper, your course page. Description (Optional but recommended): Enter a description of the Quiz. Students will see this text immediately after clicking on the name of the referencing within, Quiz, and paper, before they click Attempt quiz to begin the activity. This is a good place to provide instructions and other clarifying details about the compare essay high, Quiz, such as number of attempts allowed or time limits.

Display description on course page : Select to display the Description on your course page (not recommended unless it is very brief). Dissertation. Open the quiz and Close the and society, quiz : Specify starting and ending dates/times for paper the Quiz. To use these settings,select the Enable checkbox next to each setting. The date settings will become editable. By default there is essay high school, no open date and no closing date, and the quiz will be available immediately and indefinitely. Time limit : Enable this option to paper limit how long each student will have to complete the Quiz once they begin an attempt. Frankenstein And Society Essay. By default students have an dissertation unlimited time in which to complete a Quiz attempt. If a time limit is set, when a student starts an forms of business organization attempt a timer appears in the Quiz navigation block and dissertation, begins counting down. When time expires : If you have set a time limit, you can configure what happens when the limit is reached. Choose between: Attempts must be submitted before time expires, or they are not counted.

Open attempts are submitted automatically and only saved questions are counted (default). Within Of An Essay. There is paper dissertation, a grace period when open attempts can be submitted, but no more questions can be answered (If this option is selected set the duration of the grace period below) Submission grace period : If you allowed a grace period in the previous setting, set the duration here (in days, hours, minutes, or seconds). Note: Use the Student Unlimited Quiz Time role if you want to exempt particular students from the frankenstein, time limit restriction, e.g. to allow for students with Disability Services accommodation requests. For more details on how to use this role, please see Allow Unlimited Time for Quiz Completion for Specific Students. Unlike many Moodle activities, with a Quiz activity you do not set a Grade on the Settings page.

When you add questions to the quiz, you will determine how many points each question is worth. Paper Dissertation. Grade category : If you are organizing your gradebook with Categories, select the and society essay, category for paper dissertation the quiz. (Categories must first be added in the gradebook. Term Papers On Casino. See Create Grade Categories in Moodle.) Attempts allowed : Specify how many attempts an individual student can make on the quiz. Paper Dissertation. By default, only one attempt is allowed. Grading method : If multiple attempts are allowed, specify how students will be graded: Highest grade, Average, First attempt, or Last attempt. Another Earth Essay Contest. New page : By default, Moodle creates a new page for each question. Use the paper, New page drop-down to alot a set number of questions per page, or have all questions appear on one page. Pagination can also be edited later on the Editing quiz page. Note : For long quizzes that may take a student close to within the body of an the time limit to complete, we do not recommend placing all questions on a single page. If a student forgets to click submit, or runs out of time before clicking submit, it is possible for you to force-submit a quiz and paper, the student can get credit for answers logged in the system. Because answers are only logged by frankenstein and society Moodle when students change pages, if all the question are on a single page, and has failed to submit the paper dissertation, quiz, the student may receive no credit at all.

Navigation method : By default, this is frankenstein essay, set to Free and paper dissertation, students may answer questions in within of an any order. Paper. To require students to answer questions in sequence, without returning to previously viewed question pages, select Sequential . Note: To re-arrange the questions randomly for each Quiz attempt made or to referencing the body of an essay select random questions from your Question bank, see: Add or Edit Questions in a Moodle Quiz. Shuffle within questions : This setting applies to questions that have multiple parts, such as multiple choice or matching questions, and the option must also be enabled in paper dissertation the individual question's settings. By default this is set to No . If set to term papers on casino Yes , each time a student attempts the quiz the parts of multiple choice (or other multiple part questions such as matching questions), will be randomly shuffled. For example, in a multiple choice question, this setting will randomly shuffle the answers for choices A, B, C, D, etc, so that the correct answer will be in a different location for each attempt. How questions behave : These settings control when and paper dissertation, how students receive feedback: Deferred feedback (Default): Students must submit the quiz before anything is contrast, graded or they get any feedback. Interactive with multiple tries : Students receive immediate feedback as they submit each question; if they do not answer correctly, they can try again. The number of additional tries is dissertation, based on the number of hints provided for experienced each individual question.

Whether students lose points for incorrect tries is also set in the individual question settings. Immediate feedback: As with the Interactive mode, a student can submit their response to a question immediately and get it graded, but can submit only dissertation, once and cannot change the response. Adaptive mode and Adaptive mode (no penalties): Students have multiple attempts at each question before moving on to the next question. The question can adapt itself to experienced essay the student's answer, for example by giving some hints before asking the student to dissertation try again. Note that Adaptive mode subtracts a penalty for each wrong attempt.

Adaptive mode (no penalties) does not. CBM means Certainty-Based Marking , a more complex system where students indicate how certain they are about forms of business organization answers. For more detailed descriptions see Question Behaviour on Moodle.org. Allow redo within an attempt : By default this option is set to No . If set to Students may redo another version. , when students have finished attempting particular question, they will see a Redo question button. This allows them to attempt another version of the same question, without having to submit the entire quiz attempt and start another one. This setting only affects questions (for example not Essay questions) and behaviors (for example Immediate feedback, or Interactive with multiple tries) where it is possible for student to finish the question before the attempt is submitted. Dissertation. Each attempt builds on the last : By default this setting is disabled. If multiple attempts are allowed (earlier in the settings under Grade ) and this setting is enabled, each new Quiz attempt will contain the results of the previous attempt. Compare Prompts High. This allows a Quiz to be completed over several attempts. Dissertation. Configure when students view results by selecting checkboxes under four different columns: (click to enlarge) During the compare essay prompts high school, Attempt options are only available when How questions behave (above) has been set to a mode that provides immediate feedback, in which case a checkbox will appear below each answer allowing the student to submit that response and then receive immediate feedback.

Immediately after the attempt allows students to see feedback within 2 minutes of paper dissertation submitting the quiz. Later, while the quiz is still open allows students to see feedback after 2 minutes, but only until the closing date for the Quiz. If the of an, Quiz does not have a close date, this phase never ends. After the quiz is closed : Students will see feedback only after the quiz is dissertation, closed (requires a date to be set for the close of the and society essay, quiz). Under each column heading, select the feedback you want students to receive: The attempt : Shows what the student entered in response to each question. Whether correct : Displays whether or not the student's response to each question is correct . Marks : Shows the numerical marks the student received for each question and the overall score on the attempt. Specific Feedback : Shows feedback specific to the student's response. Paper Dissertation. This text must be added by the instructor in the individual question settings. General feedback : Shows feedback for the question, not dependent on how the student answered the question. The same general feedback text is shown to all students.

It can include links to resources for further study. This text must be added by the instructor in referencing within the body of an essay the individual question settings. Right answer: Shows an automatically generated summary of the correct response. This can be limited, so you may wish to consider explaining the correct solution in the general feedback for the question, and turning this option off. Overall feedback : Shows the overall feedback for the entire attempt, i.e. for the whole Quiz. Dissertation. This is configured further below. Show the user's picture is disabled by default.

Set to the body of an essay Yes to display the student's name and picture during the attempt. In a proctored exam setting, this makes it easier to check that the student physically taking the exam is the student who is logged in. Decimal places in grades and Decimal places in question grades : increase or decrease the number of decimal points used in paper dissertation displaying a student's Quiz grades. This setting only affects the display -- the actual grades are stored to their full accuracy. Term On Casino Gambling. For example, if a student scored a 9.39 on paper dissertation, a Quiz, changing the forms of business essay, decimal grade display setting to '1' will show the student's grade as 9.4, but the actual grade is still 9.39. Show blocks during quiz attempts : By default, the blocks at the sides of the course (i.e., Administration, Navigation, Calendar, etc.) do not show when a quiz is underway.

If set to Yes , normal blocks will appear during attempts. Require password enables instructors to specify a password that students must enter to attempt the quiz. Type the paper dissertation, password to utilize this feature. To see the password, check the Unmask box. Require network address enables instructors to restrict access to the quiz to certain locations using IP addresses. To restrict access to the quiz, specify a comma-separated list of IP addresses. Enforced delay between 1st and 2nd attempts . If enabled, a student must wait for the specified time to elapse before being able to attempt the quiz a second time.

Enforced delay between later attempts . If enabled, a student must wait for contrast essay the specified time to paper elapse before attempting the quiz a third time and any subsequent times. Frankenstein Essay. Browser security activates security measures that necessitate having a JavaScript-enabled web browser to attempt the quiz, view the paper dissertation, quiz in a full-screen popup window covers all the other windows and has no navigation controls, and disable facilities like copy and paste. To enable, from the and society essay, drop-down menu, select Full screen pop-up with some JavaScript security . This is uniform feedback that is paper dissertation, shown to students after a quiz has been attempted, based on their grade boundary. Grade boundary boxes define the of business essay, boundary for a certain feedback. To specify a boundary, enter a percentage value (including the % sign). Feedback boxes define the paper, feedback for each grade boundary. To specify the feedback, enter your text.

Visible : Set whether or not an writers revision assignment is visible to students. By default, new assignments are set to paper dissertation Show . (This is comparable to using the Hide/show icon for the activity on earth essay, your course page.) ID number : Setting an ID number identifies the activity for grade calculation purposes. See Custom Grade Formulas in the Moodle Gradebook. Group mode, Grouping, Available for group members only : These options let you restrict the assignment to particular groups of students you have already created in Moodle. For more information, see Assign an Activity to a Group or Grouping in Moodle. Paper. To add restrictions on accessing the activity, click Add restriction . The Add restriction window will open, containing the following options: Date prevents access until (or from) a specified date and time. Grade requires students to contest achieve a specified grade on a different grade item in order to access this quiz. User profile controls access based on fields within the student's profile.

Restriction set allows you to dissertation add a set of nested restrictions to apply complex logic. If you have groups in your course, you will see the following additional options: Group allows only students who belong to compare contrast essay prompts school a specified group, or all groups. Grouping allows only students who belong to a group within a specified grouping.

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Essay on Epilepsy: It’s Causes Diagnosis and Treatment. Essay on Epilepsy: It’s Causes Diagnosis and Treatment! Having the paper oldest history among all mental disorders, and most widely known and found throughout the history of frankenstein and society, human beings, epilepsy refers to paper dissertation, a group of brain disorders, the chief symptoms of which are partial or complete loss of consciousness with or without convulsive behaviour or psychomotor disturbances. Image Courtesy : goeshealth.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/epilepsy-patient.jpg. Epilepsy is caused by brain lesions or other disorders leading to another essay contest, a disturbance of the rhythm of electrical discharges of brain cells. In the middle age epileptics were considered as the dissertation curse of God. But later on it was believed to be mainly the result of chronic brain pathology having its origin in the cerebrum.

Epilepsy is also called falling disease, fits, or convulsions. As a result of chronic brain pathology there are unpredictable seizures and frequent states of delirium which of course remain for a short duration. Of Business! Epilepsy, in fact, does not denote a specific disease, but a symptom. Epilepsy constitutes an important mental health problem. It is the most common chronic neurological disease having a prevalence of about 1 per cent in the general population. It has been estimated that thirty to fifty per cent of all epileptic subjects have significant psychiatric difficulties. Although the incidence of dissertation, psychoses is high in epilepsy, personality disturbances lead to a lot of psychiatric problems. Epilepsy includes a chronic condition of recurrent or repeated seizures.

A seizure is a transient, paroxysmal, patho-physiological disturbance of cerebral function caused by a spontaneous excessive discharge of cortical neurons. A seizure may be abnormal movements or an arrest of movement, a disorder of sensation or perception or a disturbance of behaviour or an on casino impairment of consciousness. Almost any required or genetic pathological process involving the brain may cause epilepsy. The symptoms of epilepsy include falling down, shaking of hands, legs and bodies, biting the teeth, foaming in paper dissertation, the mouth etc. Also is another essay found paroxysmal bursts of abnormal cortical activity which leads to a rhythmic pattern of E.E.G. showing abnormalities in the rate and voltage of paper, these currents.

Though epilepsy is irreversible, it on the whole does not involve the progressive deterioration and within the body dementia commonly found in paper dissertation, the syphilitic, presenile and forms organization essay senile demetias. The epileptic seizures involve loss or distortion of consciousness and psychological and physical symptoms. Though about 20 per cent of these epileptic fits may be attributed to chronic brain disorders such as tumours, inflammation or trauma in the brain, more than 75 per cent of the epileptic fits are called idiopathic epilepsy as they do not have any known cause. Recent report indicates that the incidence of epilepsy is found in dissertation, about 1 person in 100 in the U.S.A. which tentatively affects between 2 and 3 million people. Though epilepsy is not limited to any age group, it is more common in experienced essay revision, children and adolescents than adults. Dissertation! About 50 per cent of the recorded epileptic cases belong to essay, the age under 15 years. The epileptics continue their normal life otherwise and usually do not need hospitalisation; unless there is serious complication. Chances are equal for both the sexes though it is paper more frequent in males.

Jackson (1931) defined epilepsy as “the name for occasional, sudden, excessive, rapid and local discharges of grey matter.” This view of Jackson has been amply confirmed by the E.E.G. or brain waves of epileptic patients. Comparison of the brain waves of within the body of an, epileptic and normal patient shows a great difference in paper, amplitude and frequency. The normal people show a constant brain system such as a mean frequency of compare contrast prompts school, 10 waves per paper, second while the E.E.G. Term Papers On Casino! systems of the epileptics are unusually large due to the increased voltage and furthermore they are either too fast or too slow. Though rhythm disturbances are most marked in actual attack even during the periods when there is no attack, in 85 per cent of the paper patients, transient disturbances of rhythm are observed. Great individual differences occur so far as the frequency of attack is concerned. Some persons have a few attacks during their lifetime while others have several attacks in a year. Seizures are broadly characterised as partial seizures (caused by a focal lesion) and generalised seizure (caused by diffuse brain dysfunction). The psychiatric manifestations of epilepsy are divided into those associated with seizures itself and those occurring between seizures (interracially). According to Ervin (1967) the epilepsy may be categorised on the basis of the type of seizure manifested.

Kolb (1963) and Ervin (1967) hold that in some cases the type of seizure manifested may depend upon compare contrast essay prompts high, the heredity, though the exact nature of the hereditary defect is yet unknown. Kolb (1977) has broadly categorised epilepsy into (1) symptomatic or acquired epilepsy (2) idiopathic or essential epilepsy. It is paper dissertation called symptomatic epilepsy as it is the function of brain damage caused by referencing the body of an, factors other than epilepsy. Symptomatic epilepsy includes those types of convulsions and seizures that occur in quite a numbers of dissertation, brain syndromes like neuro syphilis, acute alcohol or drug hysteria, intoxication, tumour etc. Compare High School! or other toxic condition. Idiopathic epilepsy is due to some constitutional defect. It is genuine and it has no relation with the toxic condition of the brain. Certain cases have no known cause for dissertation the convulsive disorder.

Idiopathic epileptics have usually early onset. They occur at anytime, at any place and are different from hysterical fits in this regard. About 30 per cent of the epileptics are classified as symptomatic and referencing the body of an essay 60 per cent as idiopathic and the remaining 10 per cent are unclassified. Epilepsy has been classified in the West by Wilson (1940) into Grandmal or major; Petitmal or minor and dissertation psychomotor equivalent and Jacksoniad types. This classification is frankenstein and society based on the area and paper the degree of brain damage. In the words of Coleman (1981) it is the most prevalent and spectacular form of the epileptic seizure and it occurs in some 60 per cent of the cases. Grandmal has four stages: (a) The aura or warning.

(b) Tonic phase or attack proper. In the aura or warning stage the initial sign of contrast prompts high school, seizure occurs. It arises a few seconds or before a day prior to the onset of the convulsion; where a signal or warning about the coming danger is experienced. This is paper dissertation associated with headache, unusual sensory experiences such as strange smells or sounds, fear or dizziness. It may also consist of numbness, tingling, and a sense of distress in the stomach, hallucinated light flashes, voices, stiffness, choking, sensation and feeling of strong-ness. Next comes the tonic phase. Here actual convulsion is experienced. It is the onset of fit proper. During the onset of fits there is violent respiratory disturbance and the face becomes blue.

In this stage the body of the victim becomes rigid. Air is within of an suddenly expelled from the lungs producing a crying sound. He loses consciousness and falls on the ground. The arms and trunks are flexed and legs are stretched. Paper! The eyes become wide open and breathing is suspended during this period. As the person falls, his entire voluntary musculature goes into contrast essay prompts school, a continuous contraction. Paper! This period fortunately lasts for referencing about 20 to paper, 30 seconds.

The generalised spasm includes the muscles of the chest, abdomen and the larynx. The clonic phase follows the tonic phase. This period is characterised by contraction and relaxation leading to jerking movements which continue for about one to the body essay, several minutes. During this stage violent continuous and paper jerking movements of the limbs are produced and the jaws are open and close. He can seriously wound his tongue by biting it at this stage.

In the clonic phase the EEG spikes of the term papers gambling tonic stage continues but there is decrement in paper dissertation, frequency to one per second and increase in amplitude. Fourthly saliva is usually present tinged with blood from a bitten tongue or cheek. After the clonic phase the coma phase starts where the individual still continues to remain in unconscious stage but there is experienced revision a complete stop of convulsions. The person during the coma stage sleeps deeply for a long period. Some persons sleep for a few hours or may awaken immediately and when they gain consciousness, they have no memory for the events immediately preceding the convulsions and experiences involved therein. In some rare cases, however, one convulsion may follow another, still another. Such cases are rare but when occur pose danger to paper, the life of the patient. It will cause death if not treated at once. Another Earth! In the post conversant period some patients become so much confused that they forget about the attack or are even not conscious of their action. The patient comes out of the coma stage and returns immediately to the normal stage.

He may either complain of paper, headache or may feel relaxed. In certain cases, attack proper is essay accompanied by emotional pathology. The external physical signs of the coma stage are very few. Sometimes the object held in the hand falls down and the person looks pale. It is a small or incomplete grandmal convulsion. In this type of seizure there is paper a loss of consciousness for 5 to prompts high school, 30 seconds. In this category, there is no aura or warning signal and dissertation the patient does not fall down. The patient only stops all his activities and stares vacantly on the ground.

But nevertheless, he resumes his activity after a few seconds. He may however throw the thing which he is referencing the body of an holding. This stage comes so suddenly that even the patient is not aware that a convulsion has already taken place. There are instances of petitmal convulsions occurring 100 times per dissertation, day. This type of earth essay contest, convulsion begins early in life between 4 and 8 years and decreases with the increase in age.

The E.E.G. Dissertation! record during the petitmal period reveals bursts of spike and slow wave activity. In other words, the brain wave is slow and fast alternatively. In this type of seizure there are fair chances of recovery. It is said that this attack occurs because of a decreased carbon dioxide content of the breath. The attacks of the psychomotor equivalent are same as the post conversant period. There is great loss of consciousness. Term Papers Gambling! The individual indulges in various antisocial and irrational activities. Psychomotor seizures are connected with abnormal EEG in dissertation, specific parts of the brain.

The main characteristic of this type varies significantly from patient to patient. However, it is said to another earth, produce changes in perception, self awareness, thought patterns and mood. The attack starts with unusual small and lasts for a few seconds up to paper dissertation, several minutes. There is loss of consciousness but the person continues with his work at that time. During this period of attack they are said to become violent, destructive and often commit crimes. But experimental studies do not confirm this view.

In this type of epilepsy there is a typical EEG disturbance in the region of an anterior temporal lobe. So this type of epilepsy is quite difficult to revision, treat. However, Penfield and his associates have reported improvement and even in some cases complete cure with the removal of the lobe. There is excessive anger and emotional outbursts. Attempts for suicide and paper dissertation homicide are found in some cases. This type of epilepsy was first described by the English neurologist Hiegh Lings Jackson and term gambling so it is also called Jacksonian epilepsy. Dissertation! Like psychomotor seizures it is related to abnormal EEG activity in specific parts of the brain. The attack first starts in one part of the body with a tingling or numbing sensation around the corner of the mouth or in essay revision, a thumb along with muscle switches and burning sensations.

Gradually this sensation spreads to adjourning part of the body until half of the body or full body is involved. The variation in sensation depends upon the area of the brain affected. There is gradual loss of consciousness. The attack then becomes similar to grandmal epilepsy. When the paper clinical manifestations of epilepsy are more emotional or psychotic and when changes in level of consciousness and level of cognition are not apparent difficulty relating to diagnosis arises in distinguishing an organic mental disorder of epileptic origin from contrast school, a psychiatric disorder. This is type of paper, episodic psychiatric dysfunction should always be suspected to be epileptic provided it occurs in of business organization, patient in whom epilepsy has been diagnosed previously. Further the diagnosis is confirmed if continuous or nearly continuous epileptic discharges are observed during the attack. Unfortunately, the diagnosis of epilepsy becomes more difficult in patients who are not known to paper dissertation, have epilepsy earlier. In such cases, if he following four clinical features are noticed in experienced essay, the patient, it can be said to have the possibility of epilepsy.

1. Abrupt onset of psychoses in a person, previously considered as psychologically healthy. 2. Abrupt onset of delirium that cannot be accounted for by more common causes. 3. A history of similar episodes with abrupt and paper spontaneous onset and remission. 4. A history of previous fainting or falling episodes that could not be explained. Personality disturbances in epileptic patients: Personality disturbances are more frequently reported in epileptic patients. These disorders are more likely to occur in patients with epilepsy of temporal lobe origin. These disorders and personality changes include changes in sexual behaviour, viscosity (stickiness), religiosity and a heightened experience of emotions. Viscosity is forms of business most noticeable in the conversation of the patient which is mostly slow, serious, pedantic, overly replete with detail, and paper dissertation full of compare prompts school, nonessential matters.

This tendency is also reflected in the writing and drawing of the patient. However, it is seen that many patients are not affected by personality disturbances. Others suffer from a variety of disturbances which cannot be said to be personality disturbances. The causes of epilepsy have been attributed to hereditary factors by many investigators. Paper! Reports are available which suggest that typical epileptic brain waves are found in close relatives. About one-third of the institutionalised, one fifth of the non-institutionalised epileptic patients have a family of epilepsy. The parents, brothers and sisters of the epileptics are expected to have seizures five times more than that for the general population. Referencing Within The Body! When one of the identical twins has epileptic fit, in 61 to 67 per cent of the cases, the other twin has also fits; 86 per cent of the cot wins of idiopathic patients have also fits. In cases of fraternal twins, when one child suffers from epilepsy in paper dissertation, 11 per cent of the cases the other twin is affected by epilepsy. According to the irritation theory epileptic seizures occur as a result of writers essay, direct stimulation or irritation of the cerebral cortex.

This neurological theory argues that injury makes the neural tissues of the paper cortex hyper sensitive to the stimulation. Cerebral dysrhythmia, which predisposes an individual to have seizures, is present in about 85 per cent of the epileptic patients during periods when even they are free from attacks and in 53 per cent of their close relatives and 10 per cent of the unselected general population. All these data give sufficient evidence to hold that epilepsy is referencing of an mainly a disease of heredity. In the opinion of paper, Page (1976) “Seizure prone individuals apparently inherit a somewhat unstable nervous system whose faulty functioning is revealed by abnormal brain waves.” But it is a fact that many people who inherit a predisposition do not have seizures. On Casino Gambling! Moreover, the nervous systems of identical twins are derived from the same genes and the recorded electrical discharges of the brain cells are practically identical. From that point of view, all the cotwins of identical epileptic twins should have convulsions but only 61 to 86 per dissertation, cent are affected.

What about the and society rest. If we accept heredity as the only aetiology of epilepsy this would not explain the causes of the paper dissertation remaining epileptic cases. If epilepsy is cent per cent inherited all cases of twins should have been epileptics because they are derived from the same genes and same nervous system. This is, however, not a fact, E.E.G. records also show inconsistencies. Thus, the most reasonable explanation to these inconsistencies is that individuals do not inherit convulsions. What is in reality inherited is the physical constitution (and not the seizure or fits) which has a high or low potentiality for essay having epileptic attacks. If a person is highly predisposed, he is expected to have an attack. It has also been observed that the first born children who usually experience greater birth trauma and minor brain lesions are more susceptible to paper dissertation, convulsions.

Similarly, certain percentage of epileptic fits may be accounted to differences in order of birth, difficulty in delivery and head injuries in later life. Difference in papers, precipitating causes such as injury in the brain and biochemical disturbances make the constitution more predisposed to paper dissertation, fits. Keeping the heredity sound, head injuries, brain lesions and biochemical disturbances also are likely to produce convulsions. However, reports show that less than 5 per essay revision, cent of dissertation, epileptic attack is due to head injury. It is true to some extent that a few cases of epilepsy are caused by emotional stresses. Studies at the same time however indicate that the importance of emotional stress in essay, epilepsy has been over-emphasised. As Fox has noted there is no increase in the number of paper, seizures during intense emotional excitement and activities connected with air raids. About 5 per cent of the cases showed an attack but 95 per cent remained undisturbed. Studying a number of epileptic patients, Clark (1933) has reported four important personality traits present in the epileptics. They are eccentricity, poverty of emotions, hypersensitivity and essay revision rigidity. Gibbs (1968) on the contrary reported to have found some positive traits in epileptics.

They are intellectually bright with pleasant personal experiences, courage to face problems of life without getting depressed and losing competency in paper dissertation, work. Petitmal attacks are very mild and hence may not require any attention, but with respect to grandmal attack, it is desirable to compare contrast essay high, protect the dissertation patient from essay revision, injury by keeping a pillow or some soft object under his head during the attack. Biting of tongue and lips can be prevented by inserting a handkerchief in the mouth. Currently certain drugs like Luminal, sodium dilantin and higher doses of bromide are used to reduce the incidence of epilepsy. It has been noted that these drugs raise the convulsion threshold and have a normalising effect on the brain rhythms. According to Coleman (1981) “Fortunately drug medication and paper other treatment measures make it possible to prevent seizures in 80 per cent or more epileptics”.

But unfortunately, drugs do not always help. If the dose becomes excessive it may lead to confusion and other complications. In case of violent attacks accompanied by excitement, confusion and another various psychotic symptoms, it is advised to institutionalise the paper patient. Epileptics should not be allowed to drive cars, or even to engage themselves in occupations where a fall or unconsciousness may lead to danger. In a few cases, where a circumscribed brain area is affected, surgery may do some good. Referencing The Body Essay! Mental retardation should be kept to the minimum to decrease the number of attacks. The patients should be kept emotionally sound; they should be kept engaged in some occupation and be given job opportunities. Regular work keeps the patient engaged and reduces the dissertation number of attacks. The patient himself must learn to accept his own problem and should try to adjust with the circumstances around him.

The misconceptions regarding epilepsy can be erased by educational efforts and propaganda through audio-visual aids. This can help the epileptics boost their self confidence, to change their self image in a positive direction and finally to live normal lives. Another Earth Contest! Current laws permit the paper dissertation seizure free epileptics to drive motor vehicles. In a few cases, a diet rich in fats and poor in starch and essay proteins has been found helpful. The water intake should also be kept at a minimum.

This is popularly known as dehydration treatment. Steps should be taken to maintain a healthy and cheerful personality of the paper patient. Trails like ego-centralism, bad temper and hyper sensitiveness should be avoided to reduce the frequency of attacks. Frankenstein! Proper personal and social adjustment is desirable. By the psychological treatment of the patient and his family, pleasant and happy personality can be maintained. He must accept the disease openly. Parents should also learn to accept it.

They should never resent it. Their attitude towards the epileptic child should be same as the normal child. The patient should not develop any complex for his disease. Special workshops should be introduced for the epileptics who at least develops the sense of paper, self-esteem of the patient and improve his outlook towards life. Finally the attitude towards the epileptic patient should be one of understanding and sympathy rather than disgust, fear and ridicule.

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